Environmental Modeling: A Practical Introduction, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Environmental Modeling

A Practical Introduction, 1st Edition

By Mike J. Barnsley

CRC Press

432 pages | 193 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2007-02-13
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Description

Increasingly used to represent climatic, biogeochemical, and ecological systems, computer modeling has become an important tool that should be in every environmental professional’s toolbox. Environmental Modeling: A Practical Introduction is just what it purports to be, a practical introduction to the various methods, techniques, and skills required for computerized environmental modeling. Exploring the broad arena of environmental modeling, the book demonstrates how to represent an environmental problem in conceptual terms, formalize the conceptual model using mathematical expressions, convert the mathematical model into a program that can be run on a desktop or laptop computer, and examine the results produced by the computational model.

Equally important, the book imparts skills that allow you to develop, implement, and experiment with a range of computerized environmental models. The emphasis is on active engagement in the modeling process rather than on passive learning about a suite of well-established models. The author takes a practical approach throughout, one that does not get bogged down in the details of the underlying mathematics and that encourages learning through “hands on” experimentation. He provides a set of software tools and data sets that you can use to work through the various examples and exercises presented in each chapter, as well as presentational material and handouts for course tutors. Comprehensive and up-to-date, the book discusses how computational models can be used to represent environmental systems and illustrates how such models improve understanding of the ways in which environmental systems function.

Reviews

"…moves along step-by-step, detail-by-detail with numerous figures and examples to show students how to comprehend and construct a mathematical model using a real-world setting and data set … I plan to use Environmental Modeling In my own classroom and professional work and recommend this helpful book to other professors and modelers."

—Anthony J. (Tony) Sada in pollutionequipment.com

"… imparts skills that allow developing, implementing, and experimenting with a range of computerized environmental models. The emphasis is on active engagement in the modeling process rather than on passive learning about a suite of well-established models. The author takes a practical approach throughout … the book will be a valuable tool …"

International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry

"… offers a clear, relevant, and practical book about modeling. … Each chapter is outlined at the beginning with a list of environmental topics and a list of relevant modeling techniques and methods to approach the topics. Publicly available software is used for all modeling exercises. Two appendixes explain how to use the software provided on the accompanying CD-ROM. Additional appendixes on standards, solutions to exercises, acronyms and abbreviations, and symbols provide additional information. … Highly recommended… "

—N. W. Hinman, University of Montana, in Choice, Vol. 45, No. 2

Table of Contents

MODELS AND MODELING

Why Model?

The Modeling Process

Llyn Efyrnwy

Structure and Objectives of the Book

Resources on the CD-ROM

Typographical Conventions

VISUALIZING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

Introduction

Creating Two-Dimensional Plots

Plotting Time-Series Data

Plotting in Three Dimensions

Printing Plots

Exporting Graphics Files

Command-Line Scripts

Summary

PROCESSING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

Introduction

Structure of the Llyn Efyrnwy Precipitation Data

Creating and Running a Simple gawk Program

Using gawk to Process Selected Fields

Storing the gawk Program in a File

Using gawk to Process Selected Records

Controlling the Format of the Output

Redirecting the Output to a File

Visualizing the Output Data

Logical or Boolean Operators in gawk

Summary

WIND SPEED AND WIND POWER

Introduction

Description of the Wind Speed Data

Calculating the Annual Mean Wind Speed

Determining the Maximum Wind Speed

Exploring Wind Speed Variability

Wind Energy and Power

Summary

SOLAR RADIATION AT EARTH’S SURFACE

Introduction

Description of the Solar Irradiance Data

Analyzing the Observations

Modeling Solar Irradiance

Summary

LIGHT INTERACTION WITH A PLANT CANOPY

Introduction

Developing a Model of Light Interaction with Plant Canopies

A Two-Layer Light Interaction Model

Accounting for Multiple Scattering

Multiple Leaf-Layer Models

Summary

ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS

Introduction

An Exact Analytical Solution to the Two-Layer Model

An Iterative Numerical Solution to the Multiple Leaf-Layer Model

Bouguer’s Law and the Attenuation Coefficient

Summary

POPULATION DYNAMICS

Introduction

Unconstrained or Density-Independent Growth

Constrained or Density-Dependent Growth

Numerical Integration (or Stepping) Methods

Inter-Specific Competition

Predator-Prey Relationships

Summary

BIOSPHERIC FEEDBACK ON DAISYWORLD

Introduction

Description and Assumptions of the Conceptual Model

Formulating the Mathematical Model

Implementing the Computational Model

Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Analysis

Summary

MODELING INCIDENT SOLAR RADIATION AND HYDROLOGICAL NETWORKS OVER NATURAL TERRAIN

Introduction

Visualizing Digital Elevation Data as an Array

Handling Multi-Dimensional Arrays in gawk

Determining Terrain Gradient and Aspect

Solar Irradiance on Sloping Terrain

Modeling Hydrological Networks

Summary and Further Directions

INSTALLING AND RUNNING THE SOFTWARE

Introduction

Some Basic Computing Concepts

Installing and Running gnuplot

Installing and Running gawk

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Preamble

Terms and Conditions for Copying, Distribution and Modification

No Warranty

GNUPLOT LICENSE

STANDARDS

International Standard Date and Time Notation

SI Units (Systéme International d’Unités)

SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

LIST OF SYMBOLS

REFERENCES

INDEX

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TEC036000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems