Environmental Risk Assessment
A Toxicological Approach
The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. The problems we face in the twenty-first century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing world.
Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach examines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text:
- Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future
- Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors
- Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria
- Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments
- Examines the use of in vitro and ‘omics methods for toxicity testing
- Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century
- Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings
Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.
Table of Contents
Risk Assessment Paradigm from the 1983 Redbook-"Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process"
Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Part A 1989
The Interface of Risk Assessment and Risk Management
History of Risk Assessment in the US from 1990 to 2010
Risk Communication and Stakeholder Participation
Risk Assessment Policy and the Role of Science
How Risk is Perceived and Expressed
Risk Estimates for Regulation
Uncertainty in Risk Estimates
Uncertainty in Risk Management and the Precautionary Principle
Human Health Exposure Assessment
What are Receptors?
How are Receptors Exposed to Environmental Stressors?
Human Exposure Assessment
Assessing Exposure Factors and Data
Issues to Be Considered When Performing an Exposure Assessment
The Concentration Term
Fate and Transport Models
Accounting For Uncertainty In Exposure Factors
Toxicity Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment
Mode of Action and General Aspects of Toxicity
Homeostasis and Thresholds
Historical Perspective on Toxicity Testing
Timescale and Nature of Adverse Effects
Low Dose Extrapolation-Two Types of Toxicity Factors
Computational Methods in Toxicity Assessment
Accounting For Uncertainty in Toxicity Factors
Toxicity Factors for Regulation
Hazard Quotient for Threshold Effects
Risk Estimation for Non-Threshold Effects
Cumulative and Aggregate Risk
The Possibility of Compounding Conservatism in Both Exposure and Toxicity
The Precautionary Principle
Utility of Risk Characterization for Decision Making
Ecological Risk Assessment
Statutory Aspects of ERA at EPA and the Role of Natural Resource Trustees
ERA Under REACH
Ecological Risk Assessment as Practiced By EPA
Methodology for ERA under REACH
Science Policy of ERA
The Future of Risk Assessment
In Vitro Testing and ‘Omics-Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century
Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment
Recommendations for Improving IRIS in the 2011 NAS Review of the Formaldehyde Risk Assessment
Possible Future Scenarios for Risk Assessment: Scientific, Social and Political Factors in Societal Decision Making
Appendix A: Useful Methods and Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA)
Ted Simon, DABT earned advanced degrees in biology, including a Ph.D from Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA. After college, he held post-doctoral and teaching positions before serving as senior toxicologist in the Waste Management Division at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 4, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. His critically successful novel, A Lost Gun, was published under the nom de plume Wix Simon. He is currently working on another crime novel featuring an environmental poisoning situation inspired by his twelve years at the EPA. He also provides toxicology consulting and scientific support as principal/owner of Ted Simon LLC, Winston, Georgia, USA.
"It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk."
—International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
"This is an excellent book providing a text and reference that will enable students of risk assessment to approach the future with confidence about the state of their knowledge. Readers of this book will … gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulation."
—Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B