This concise book covers all the critical aspects of environmental sampling and analysis. Extensively peer-reviewed by scientists from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other government agencies, industry and academia, it is packed with practical advice and tips from renowned experts.
Planning, sampling, analysis, QA/QC, and reporting are discussed for air, water, solid liquid, and biological samples, with emphasis on the interdependence between sampling and analytical activities. Special requirements for sampling devices, containers, and preservatives are provided with convenient checklists for sampling plans and protocols.
New and revised recommendations involving method detection levels, reliable detection levels, and levels of quantitation are discussed in conjunction with laboratory reports and user presentations of data near analytical detection limits.
This is a valuable and comprehensive reference book for chemists, technicians, consultants, lawyers, regulators, engineers, quality control officers, news and information managers, teachers, and students.
"Valuable for those seeking a clearly written…overview of topics related to the measurement and evaluation of environmental data."
ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING. Introduction to Environmental Sampling. PLANNING AND SAMPLING PROTOCOLS. Data Quality Objectives Affect All Aspects of Planning. Basic Considerations of Planning. Good Sampling Protocols Document Planning. Basic Sampling Approaches. Planning Includes Assessing Migration of Pollutants. Planning Includes Selecting Appropriate Sampling Devices. Composite Sampling Must Be Planned Carefully. Safety Plans Reduce Chemical Exposure and Liability. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL. Sampling Considerations. Defining Blank Sample Requirements. Using Blanks. Background (Control) Sample Selection. SAMPLING WATER MATRICES. Obtaining Representative Samples. Selecting Sampling Devices. Common Sampling Problems. Sample Preservation. SAMPLING AIR MATRICES. Obtaining Representative Samples. Selecting Sampling Devices. Common Sampling Problems. Influence of Meteorology and Topography on Sampling Air. Topography Effects. SAMPLING BIOLOGICAL MATRICES. Obtaining Representative Samples. Common Sampling Problems. Sample Preservation. SAMPLING SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND SLUDGES. Obtaining Representative Samples. Selecting Sampling Devices. Common Sampling Problems. Sample Preservation. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS. Introduction to Environmental Analysis. PLANNING ANALYTICAL PROTOCOLS. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL. Quality Assurance. Quality Control. Quality Assessment. Measurement Variability. Verification and Validation. Precision and Accuracy. ANALYTICAL MEASUREMENTS. Definition of the Data Set. Calibration and Standardization. Preparation of Samples. Recovery. Interferences. DOCUMENTATION AND REPORTING. Documentation. Data Generation Versus Data Use. Reporting by Laboratories. Relative Bias at Low Concentration Levels. Reporting by Users. Limit of Quantitation (LOQ). Guidelines for Reporting and Presenting Data. Guidelines for Handling Data. Final Comments. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. REFERENCES. OTHER USEFUL SOURCES OF INFORMATION.