Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals

1st Edition

By Maria Csuros, Csaba Csuros

CRC Press

404 pages | 71 B/W Illus.

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Paperback: 9781566705721
pub: 2002-07-01
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Description

Determination of metals is a major part of the work of environmental testing laboratories. EPA and DEP methodology releases provide information only for selected areas of metals sampling and analysis, and their language makes them unsuitable for teaching and training purposes. Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals is a comprehensive and easy-to-read text for laboratory technicians and analytical chemists who need a guide for analyzing metals in environmental samples and a reference for analytical and quality control procedures.

The book provides both theoretical and practical applications in metals analysis of environmental samples and incorporates the latest in analytical techniques, instrumentation, and regulations. Topics include sample collection, preservation, step-by-step analytical procedures, complete QA/QC requirements, data validation, and more. It also provides an overview of the occurrence, source, and fate of metallic substances in the environment, as well as their control by regulations and standards. Furthermore, the authors provide guidelines to help you prepare and understand reports. The analytical methods presented in Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals will be useful to anyone who produces, uses, or evaluates analytical data, and will be a valuable tool in environmental education and training programs.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Metals

Introduction to Elements

Periodic Table of Elements

Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

Early History of Metal Use

Sources of Metals and Their Compounds

Sources of Metal Pollution

Discussion of the Metallic Elements

Representative Elements

Transition Metals

Metalloids

Heavy Metals

Metallic Substances Essential to Life

Toxicity of Metals

General Discussion of Toxicity

Metal Toxicity

Toxic Effects of Selected Representative Metals

Toxicity of Selected Transition Metals

Toxicity of Selected Metalloids

Standards Related to Metallic Pollutants

Environmental Law

Drinking Water Standards

Surface Water Standards

Agriculturally Used Waters

Industrial Waters

Waste Characterization

Hazardous Waste Characterization

Air Pollution and Control

ISO 14001 and Environmental Law

Fundamentals of Spectroscopy

Early History of the Nature of the Light

Electromagnetic Radiation

Continuous and Line Spectra

Absorption and Emission

Beer's Law

Atomic Spectroscopy Techniques

Molecular Spectrophotometry

Molecular Absorption and Color

Molecular Absorption Spectrophotometry

Single-Beam and Double-Beam Spectrophotometer

Type of Spectrophotometers

Summary of Molecular Spectrophotometry

Spectrophotometer Calibration

Performance Check of UV/Vis and IR Spectrophotometer

Maintenance of the UV/Vis and IR Spectrophotometer

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Introduction

Steps in the Atomic Absorption Process

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Components

Single- and Double-Beam Instruments

Atomic Absorption Measurement Terms

Techniques in AAS Measurements

Interference in AAS Techniques

Safety in AAS Work

Quality Control

Maintenance of AA Spectrophotometers

AAS Performance Checks

Sample Collection and Sample Preparation

Direct Aspiration or Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS)

Principle

Direct Air-Acetylene Flame Method

Direct Nitrous Oxide-Acetylene Flame Method

Interferences, Safety and Quality Control Requirements of FAAS

Maintenance of FAA

Performance Check of FAAS

Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

General Discussion

Apparatus

Analysis by Graphite Furnace Spectrophotometer

Interferences in the Graphite Furnace

Stabilized Temperature Platform Furnace (STPF)

Quality Control Requirements

Maintenance of Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

Performance Check of Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

General Discussion

Apparatus

Procedure

Interference

Quality Control Requirements

Calculations and Reporting

Safety

Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Technique

Principles

Application

Apparatus and Materials

Interferences

Sample Collection, Preservation, and Handling

Preparation of Samples and Standards for Total Arsenic and Selenium

Procedure

Quality Control Requirements

Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES)

General Characteristics of ICP-AES

ICP-AES Instrumentation

Interferences in ICP-AES

Reagents and Standards

Procedure

Quality Control

Quality Control in Metals Analysis

General Discussion

Glassware Used in Metals Analysis

Chemicals

Laboratory-Pure Water

Field Quality Control

Instrument Calibration

Instrument Performance Check

Laboratory QC Checks

Detection Limits

Accuracy and Precision

Sample Collection for Metals Analysis

General Considerations in Sampling

Automatic Samplers

Sample Containers

Sample Preservation

Special Sampling Procedures

Holding Time

Field Records

Field Quality Control

Sample Collection from Different Matrices

Sample Preparation for Metal Analysis

General Discussion

Digestion Procedures for Metals

Acid Digestion for Total and Dissolved Metals

Acid Digestion of Aqueous Samples and Extracts for Total Metals by FAAS and ICP Analyzer

Acid Digestion of Aqueous Samples and Extracts for Total Metals by GrAAS

Sample Preparation for Arsenic and Selenium determination by GrAAS

Sample Preparation for Silver Determination

Sample Preparation for Antimony Determination

Sample Preparation for Mercury Determination

Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, and Soils for Metals Analysis

Dissolution Procedure for Oils, Greases, and Waxes

Sample Preparation for Hexavalent Chromium (Chelation/Extraction)

Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity

Extraction Procedure for Oily Wastes

Documentation during Sample Preparation

Disposal of Samples, Digestates, Extracts, and Other Wastes

Converting Raw Data into Reportable Form

Responsibilities of the Analyst

Calculations for Final Values

Records for Raw and Calculated Data

Evaluation and Approval of Analytical Data

Reporting Analytical Data

Required Documentation

Significant Figures in Analytical Reports

Units Used to Express Analytical Results

Confidence Interval

Report Format

Selected Methods for Determination of Metals in Environmental Samples

Methodology

Aluminum

Antimony

Arsenic

Barium

Beryllium

Bismuth

Cadmium

Calcium

Chromium

Hexavalent Chromium

Cobalt

Copper

Iron

Lead

Lithium

Magnesium

Manganese

Mercury

Molybdenum

Nickel

Potassium

Selenium

Silver

Sodium

Thallium

Tin

Vanadium

Zinc

Laboratory Safety Rules

Laboratory Hazards

Safe Handling of Compressed Gases

Stockroom Safety Rules

Summary of Laboratory Safety Rules

Appendices

Operation of Mass Spectrophotometer

Silicon Chips

Lasers

Metals and Plants

Toxicity and Cyanide

Components of Nucleic Acid

Polarized Light

Stock Metal Solutions

Calculation for Solid Matrices

Plasma

Sohxlet Extraction

SI Units and Conversion Factors

References

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI013010
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Analytic