From bridges and tunnels to nuclear waste repositories, structures require that soils maintain their design engineering properties if the structures are to reach their projected life spans. The same is true for earth dams, levees, buffers, barriers for landfills, and other structures that use soils as engineered materials. Yet soil, a natural resource, continues to change as a result of natural and anthropogenic stresses. As the discipline of soil properties and behaviours matures, new tools and techniques are making it possible to study these properties and behaviours in more depth.
What Happens to Soil Under Weathering, Aging, and Chemical Stress?
Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour examines changes in soil properties and behaviour caused by short- and long-term stresses from anthropogenic activities and environmental forces. Introducing new concepts of soil behaviour, soil maturation, and soil functionality, it integrates soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil mechanics as vital factors in soil engineering. The book focuses on environmental soil behaviour, with particular attention to two main inter-related groups of soil–environment issues. The first is the use of soil as an environmental tool for management and containment of toxic and hazardous waste materials. The second is the impact of ageing and weathering processes and soil contamination on the properties and behaviour of soils, especially those used in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering projects.
A Transdisciplinary Look at Soil-Changing Processes
To determine short- and long-term soil quality and soil functionality, the authors emphasize the need to be aware of the nature of the stressors involved as well as the kinds of soil-changing processes that are evoked. This book takes a first step toward a much-needed transdisciplinary effort to develop a broader and deeper understanding of what happens to soil and how we can determine and quantify the effect of biogeochemical processes. It offers a timely resource for the study of soil properties and behaviours, effects of environmental changes, and remediation of contaminated soil.
Table of Contents
Origin and Function of Soils
Soil Origin and Formation
Basic Soil Functions
Nature of Soils
Soil Organic Matter
Microorganisms in Soils
Soil-Water Energy Characteristics
Water Uptake and Transfer
Chemical Reactions in Porewater
Physical Reactions and Hydration
Water Uptake and Swelling
Stressors, Impacts, and Soil Functionality
Stressor Sources and Stressors
Soil Functionality Index (SFI)
Time-Related Change of Functionality
Concept of Effective Stress
Shear Strength of Soils
Mechanisms in Granular Soil Strength
Cohesive Soil Strength
Shear Resistance Mechanisms
Compressibility and Consolidation
Thermal and Hydraulic Properties
Water Movement under Thermal Gradient
Swelling Clay Hydraulic Conductivity
Vapour and Gas Conductivities
Sorption Properties and Mechanisms
Solutes, Contaminants, and Pollutants
Contaminant Interactions with Soil Particles
Contaminant Sorption Mechanisms
Laboratory Determination of Partitioning
Partitioning and Soil Composition
Mobility and Attenuation of Contaminants
Interactions and Mobility
Mobility and Attenuation
Microstructure and Diffusive Transport
Attenuation of Organic Chemicals
Environmental Soil Behaviour
Soil Evolution and Ageing Processes
Time-Related Changes and Soil Evolution
Biodegradation and Biotransformation of Contaminants
Freeze–Thaw Seasonal Impact
Dr. Raymond N. Yong is the William Scott Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at McGill University, Canada, and emeritus professor at the University of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom. He is a fellow of the Royal Society (Canada), and a Chevalier de l’Orde National du Quebec. He is currently engaged in research on issues in geoenvironmental sustainability.
Dr. Masashi Nakano is the emeritus professor of soil physics and soil hydrogeology at the University of Tokyo, and director of the RISST (Research Institute of Soil Science and Technology), Japan. He was recently a member of the Science Council of Japan, and is now working on such issues in soil/clay science as adsorption/transport of chemicals on soils and mineral corrosion by microorganisms.
Dr. Roland Pusch is emeritus professor at Lund University, Sweden, and is presently guest professor at Lulea Technical University, Sweden, and honorary professor at East China Technological Institute. He is currently the scientific head and managing director of Drawrite AB, Sweden, and is working on issues of long-term stability of clay buffers in HLW repositories and on design and performance of hazardous landfills.