1st Edition

Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour

    456 Pages 178 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    From bridges and tunnels to nuclear waste repositories, structures require that soils maintain their design engineering properties if the structures are to reach their projected life spans. The same is true for earth dams, levees, buffers, barriers for landfills, and other structures that use soils as engineered materials. Yet soil, a natural resource, continues to change as a result of natural and anthropogenic stresses. As the discipline of soil properties and behaviours matures, new tools and techniques are making it possible to study these properties and behaviours in more depth.

    What Happens to Soil Under Weathering, Aging, and Chemical Stress?

    Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour examines changes in soil properties and behaviour caused by short- and long-term stresses from anthropogenic activities and environmental forces. Introducing new concepts of soil behaviour, soil maturation, and soil functionality, it integrates soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil mechanics as vital factors in soil engineering. The book focuses on environmental soil behaviour, with particular attention to two main inter-related groups of soil–environment issues. The first is the use of soil as an environmental tool for management and containment of toxic and hazardous waste materials. The second is the impact of ageing and weathering processes and soil contamination on the properties and behaviour of soils, especially those used in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering projects.

    A Transdisciplinary Look at Soil-Changing Processes

    To determine short- and long-term soil quality and soil functionality, the authors emphasize the need to be aware of the nature of the stressors involved as well as the kinds of soil-changing processes that are evoked. This book takes a first step toward a much-needed transdisciplinary effort to develop a broader and deeper understanding of what happens to soil and how we can determine and quantify the effect of biogeochemical processes. It offers a timely resource for the study of soil properties and behaviours, effects of environmental changes, and remediation of contaminated soil.

    Origin and Function of Soils
    Soil Origin and Formation
    Soil Classification
    Basic Soil Functions
    Concluding Remarks

    Nature of Soils
    Clay Minerals
    Nonclay Minerals
    Soil Organic Matter
    Soil Particles
    Soil Structure
    Interparticle Bonds
    Microorganisms in Soils
    Laboratory Determinations
    Concluding Remarks

    Soil–Water Systems
    Water Retention
    Clay–Water Interactions
    Soil-Water Energy Characteristics
    Water Uptake and Transfer
    Chemical Reactions in Porewater
    Physical Reactions and Hydration
    Concluding Remarks

    Swelling Clays
    Swelling Phenomena
    Water Uptake and Swelling
    Water Movement
    Concluding Remarks

    Stressors, Impacts, and Soil Functionality
    Stressor Sources and Stressors
    Stressor Impacts
    Soil Functionality Index (SFI)
    Time-Related Change of Functionality
    Concluding Remarks

    Mechanical Properties

    Mechanical Attributes
    Concept of Effective Stress
    Shear Strength of Soils
    Mechanisms in Granular Soil Strength
    Cohesive Soil Strength
    Porewater Pressure
    Shear Resistance Mechanisms
    Compressibility and Consolidation
    Creep Behaviour
    Concluding Remarks

    Thermal and Hydraulic Properties
    Thermal Properties
    Water Movement under Thermal Gradient
    Hydraulic Properties
    Swelling Clay Hydraulic Conductivity
    Vapour and Gas Conductivities
    Concluding Remarks

    Sorption Properties and Mechanisms
    Solutes, Contaminants, and Pollutants
    Contaminant Interactions with Soil Particles
    Contaminant Sorption Mechanisms
    Laboratory Determination of Partitioning
    Partitioning and Soil Composition
    Concluding Remarks

    Mobility and Attenuation of Contaminants
    Interactions and Mobility
    Mobility and Attenuation
    Microstructure and Diffusive Transport
    Attenuation of Organic Chemicals
    Concluding Remarks

    Environmental Soil Behaviour
    Soil Evolution and Ageing Processes
    Time-Related Changes and Soil Evolution
    Biodegradation and Biotransformation of Contaminants
    Freeze–Thaw Seasonal Impact
    Concluding Remarks


    Dr. Raymond N. Yong is the William Scott Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at McGill University, Canada, and emeritus professor at the University of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom. He is a fellow of the Royal Society (Canada), and a Chevalier de l’Orde National du Quebec. He is currently engaged in research on issues in geoenvironmental sustainability.

    Dr. Masashi Nakano is the emeritus professor of soil physics and soil hydrogeology at the University of Tokyo, and director of the RISST (Research Institute of Soil Science and Technology), Japan. He was recently a member of the Science Council of Japan, and is now working on such issues in soil/clay science as adsorption/transport of chemicals on soils and mineral corrosion by microorganisms.

    Dr. Roland Pusch is emeritus professor at Lund University, Sweden, and is presently guest professor at Lulea Technical University, Sweden, and honorary professor at East China Technological Institute. He is currently the scientific head and managing director of Drawrite AB, Sweden, and is working on issues of long-term stability of clay buffers in HLW repositories and on design and performance of hazardous landfills.