Environmental Toxicology : Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition book cover
3rd Edition

Environmental Toxicology
Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition

ISBN 9781439840382
Published November 16, 2011 by CRC Press
397 Pages 103 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Human survival depends on the availability of clean air, water, and food and on the welfare of plants and animals. However, anthropogenic and naturally occurring chemicals can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecological processes. Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition presents fundamental information on the effects of environmental toxicants on living systems. It focuses on the chemical and biological characteristics of major pollutants found in the air, water, and soil and relates them to the health and well being of humans, animals, and plants.

An Indispensable Reference on Air, Soil, & Water Pollutants and Their Impact on Living Systems

Surveying the environmental and health changes that have occurred in recent decades, the book discusses the sources, metabolism, and damage process of toxicants, and the environmental, biological, and nutritional factors that may influence toxicity. It looks at natural defense systems, including the mechanisms for detoxification—such as endogenous antioxidants and free radical scavenging enzymes—on a cellular level.

The text examines the major toxicants: EPA criteria air pollutants, environmental fluoride, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), environmental metals and metalloids involved in soil and water pollution, and pesticides and related material such as PCBs and dioxins. It then addresses their relationship with endocrine disruption and environmental cancer. This comprehensive approach offers insight into the interaction of various chemical agents with DNA.

Fully revised and expanded, the third edition of this popular book includes new and updated material as well as a new chapter on occupational toxicology. Appendices cover the process of ecological risk assessment, carcinogens, and PCB nomenclature. Based on research from more than 35 years of teaching environmental toxicology and related courses, this textbook is a useful resource for students, professionals, and researchers interested in the effects of pollutants on living systems.

What’s New in This Edition

  • A new chapter on occupational toxicology, covering indoor air quality, chemicals in the workplace, nanoparticle exposure, and more
  • An updated chapter on environmental changes and health, including significant environmental changes that have occurred since the last edition
  • An updated chapter on environmental cancer, including changes in death rates of respiratory cancers
  • New material on the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in stratospheric ozone layer depletion
  • An expanded discussion of environmental disasters

Table of Contents

Study of Environmental Toxicology
Importance of Environmental Toxicology as an Area of Science
Introduction to this Book

Environmental Changes and Health
Our Changing Environment
Air Pollution
Indoor Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Soil Pollution
The Changing Diseases
Review Questions

Occurrence of Toxicants
Visible Smoke or Smog
Offensive Odors
Agricultural Damage
Intoxication of Animals
Injuries to Humans
Chronic and Acute Effects

Toxic Action of Pollutants
Effects on Plants
Mammalian Organisms
Mechanism of Toxic Action
Review Questions

Factors Affecting Xenobiotic Action
Physiological Properties
Dose or Concentration
Duration and Mode of Exposure
Environmental Factors
Biological Factors
Nutritional Factors
Review Questions

Biotransformation: Metabolism of Xenobiotics
Types of Biotransformation
Mechanism of Biotransformation
Characteristics of Biotransformation
Consequence of Biotransformation
Factors Affecting Biotransformation
Characteristics of the Cytochrome P450s
Review Questions

Responses to Environmental Toxicants
Responses of Plants
Responses of Humans and Animals
Review Questions

Air Pollution: Inorganic Gases
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrogen Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Review Questions

Air Pollution: Particulate Matter
Characteristics of Particulate Matter
Formation of Particulates
Health Effects
Review Questions

Environmental Fluoride
Occurrence and Forms of Fluoride
Industrial Sources of Fluoride Pollution
Effects on Plants
Effects on Animals
Effects on Humans
Biochemical Effect of Fluoride
Nutrition and Fluoride Toxicity
Review Questions

Volatile Organic Compounds
Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Review Questions

Soil and Water Pollution: Environmental Metals and Metalloids
Review Questions

Pesticides and Related Materials
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Polybrominated Biphenyls
Review Questions

Occupational Toxicology
Changing Workplace Environment
Threshold Limit Values
Biological Exposure Indices
Respiratory Toxicity
Other Occupational Diseases Caused by Toxic Substances
Recent Chemicals of Concern
Review Questions

Endocrine Disruption
Review of Hormonal Function
Characteristics of Endocrine Disrupters
Mode of Action
Examples of Endocrine Disruption
Hormonal Cancers
Testing Estrogenicity
Review Questions

Mutagenic Pollutants
Types of Mutation
Effects of Mutation
Induction of Mutation
Review Questions

Environmental Cancer
Causes of Cancer
Three Stages in the Development of Cancer
Classification of Carcinogens
Metabolism of Chemical Carcinogens
Respiratory Cancer Death Rates
DNA Repair
Review Questions

Appendix 1: Ecological Risk Assessment
Appendix 2: 11th Report on Carcinogens
Appendix 3: List of Cigarette Smoke Carcinogens
Appendix 4: Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Nomenclature


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Dr. Ming-Ho Yu is professor emeritus at Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University. Dr. Yu served as the vice president and president of the International Society for Fluoride Research (ISFR) from 1986 to 1996 and is the associate editor of Fluoride, the official publication of the society. He is a founding coeditor of Environmental Sciences, a journal published in Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Yu is the author of Environmental Toxicology: Impacts of Environmental Toxicants on Living Systems and Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Second Edition and coauthor of Introduction to Environmental Toxicology: Molecular Substructures to Ecological Landscapes, published by CRC Press.

Dr. Humio Tsunoda is professor emeritus at Iwate Medical University in Morioka, Japan. He received a Green Cross Award from the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, and awards for distinguished service from the Ministry of Construction, the Ministry of Labor, the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, the Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment, and the Japanese Society for Occupational Health. In 2010, Dr. Tsunoda received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon from the government of Japan.

Dr. Masashi Tsunoda is an associate professor at the Department of Preventive Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine in Japan. He is a councilor of the Japan Society for Biomedical Research on Trace Elements, an editorial board member of the International Society for Fluoride Research, and a board member of the Japanese Society of Immunotoxicology. He is coeditor of Kitasato Medical Journal and a guest reviewer of Toxicological Sciences.


Praise for the Second Edition 

This book is very well presented. A particular strength is the use of many examples of major pollution events and case studies, as well as an actual ecological impact assessment study in the appendix. Another strength is that review questions are given at the end of each chapter. ... Overall, this is an excellent text on the subject, particularly for teachers and students of the basics of environmental studies.

—Marinus L. Otte, University College Dublin, in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 172, Issue 2, June 2006