3rd Edition

Environmental Toxicology Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition

    398 Pages 103 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Human survival depends on the availability of clean air, water, and food and on the welfare of plants and animals. However, anthropogenic and naturally occurring chemicals can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecological processes. Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition presents fundamental information on the effects of environmental toxicants on living systems. It focuses on the chemical and biological characteristics of major pollutants found in the air, water, and soil and relates them to the health and well being of humans, animals, and plants.

    An Indispensable Reference on Air, Soil, & Water Pollutants and Their Impact on Living Systems

    Surveying the environmental and health changes that have occurred in recent decades, the book discusses the sources, metabolism, and damage process of toxicants, and the environmental, biological, and nutritional factors that may influence toxicity. It looks at natural defense systems, including the mechanisms for detoxification—such as endogenous antioxidants and free radical scavenging enzymes—on a cellular level.

    The text examines the major toxicants: EPA criteria air pollutants, environmental fluoride, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), environmental metals and metalloids involved in soil and water pollution, and pesticides and related material such as PCBs and dioxins. It then addresses their relationship with endocrine disruption and environmental cancer. This comprehensive approach offers insight into the interaction of various chemical agents with DNA.

    Fully revised and expanded, the third edition of this popular book includes new and updated material as well as a new chapter on occupational toxicology. Appendices cover the process of ecological risk assessment, carcinogens, and PCB nomenclature. Based on research from more than 35 years of teaching environmental toxicology and related courses, this textbook is a useful resource for students, professionals, and researchers interested in the effects of pollutants on living systems.

    What’s New in This Edition

    • A new chapter on occupational toxicology, covering indoor air quality, chemicals in the workplace, nanoparticle exposure, and more
    • An updated chapter on environmental changes and health, including significant environmental changes that have occurred since the last edition
    • An updated chapter on environmental cancer, including changes in death rates of respiratory cancers
    • New material on the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in stratospheric ozone layer depletion
    • An expanded discussion of environmental disasters

    Study of Environmental Toxicology
    Importance of Environmental Toxicology as an Area of Science
    Introduction to this Book

    Environmental Changes and Health
    Our Changing Environment
    Air Pollution
    Indoor Air Pollution
    Water Pollution
    Soil Pollution
    The Changing Diseases
    Review Questions

    Occurrence of Toxicants
    Visible Smoke or Smog
    Offensive Odors
    Agricultural Damage
    Intoxication of Animals
    Injuries to Humans
    Chronic and Acute Effects

    Toxic Action of Pollutants
    Effects on Plants
    Mammalian Organisms
    Mechanism of Toxic Action
    Review Questions

    Factors Affecting Xenobiotic Action
    Physiological Properties
    Dose or Concentration
    Duration and Mode of Exposure
    Environmental Factors
    Biological Factors
    Nutritional Factors
    Review Questions

    Biotransformation: Metabolism of Xenobiotics
    Types of Biotransformation
    Mechanism of Biotransformation
    Characteristics of Biotransformation
    Consequence of Biotransformation
    Factors Affecting Biotransformation
    Characteristics of the Cytochrome P450s
    Review Questions

    Responses to Environmental Toxicants
    Responses of Plants
    Responses of Humans and Animals
    Review Questions

    Air Pollution: Inorganic Gases
    Sulfur Dioxide
    Nitrogen Dioxide
    Carbon Monoxide
    Review Questions

    Air Pollution: Particulate Matter
    Characteristics of Particulate Matter
    Formation of Particulates
    Health Effects
    Review Questions

    Environmental Fluoride
    Occurrence and Forms of Fluoride
    Industrial Sources of Fluoride Pollution
    Effects on Plants
    Effects on Animals
    Effects on Humans
    Biochemical Effect of Fluoride
    Nutrition and Fluoride Toxicity
    Review Questions

    Volatile Organic Compounds
    Petroleum Hydrocarbons
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    Review Questions

    Soil and Water Pollution: Environmental Metals and Metalloids
    Review Questions

    Pesticides and Related Materials
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    Polybrominated Biphenyls
    Review Questions

    Occupational Toxicology
    Changing Workplace Environment
    Threshold Limit Values
    Biological Exposure Indices
    Respiratory Toxicity
    Other Occupational Diseases Caused by Toxic Substances
    Recent Chemicals of Concern
    Review Questions

    Endocrine Disruption
    Review of Hormonal Function
    Characteristics of Endocrine Disrupters
    Mode of Action
    Examples of Endocrine Disruption
    Hormonal Cancers
    Testing Estrogenicity
    Review Questions

    Mutagenic Pollutants
    Types of Mutation
    Effects of Mutation
    Induction of Mutation
    Review Questions

    Environmental Cancer
    Causes of Cancer
    Three Stages in the Development of Cancer
    Classification of Carcinogens
    Metabolism of Chemical Carcinogens
    Respiratory Cancer Death Rates
    DNA Repair
    Review Questions

    Appendix 1: Ecological Risk Assessment
    Appendix 2: 11th Report on Carcinogens
    Appendix 3: List of Cigarette Smoke Carcinogens
    Appendix 4: Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Nomenclature



    Dr. Ming-Ho Yu is professor emeritus at Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University. Dr. Yu served as the vice president and president of the International Society for Fluoride Research (ISFR) from 1986 to 1996 and is the associate editor of Fluoride, the official publication of the society. He is a founding coeditor of Environmental Sciences, a journal published in Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Yu is the author of Environmental Toxicology: Impacts of Environmental Toxicants on Living Systems and Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Second Edition and coauthor of Introduction to Environmental Toxicology: Molecular Substructures to Ecological Landscapes, published by CRC Press.

    Dr. Humio Tsunoda is professor emeritus at Iwate Medical University in Morioka, Japan. He received a Green Cross Award from the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, and awards for distinguished service from the Ministry of Construction, the Ministry of Labor, the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, the Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment, and the Japanese Society for Occupational Health. In 2010, Dr. Tsunoda received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon from the government of Japan.

    Dr. Masashi Tsunoda is an associate professor at the Department of Preventive Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine in Japan. He is a councilor of the Japan Society for Biomedical Research on Trace Elements, an editorial board member of the International Society for Fluoride Research, and a board member of the Japanese Society of Immunotoxicology. He is coeditor of Kitasato Medical Journal and a guest reviewer of Toxicological Sciences.

    Praise for the Second Edition 

    This book is very well presented. A particular strength is the use of many examples of major pollution events and case studies, as well as an actual ecological impact assessment study in the appendix. Another strength is that review questions are given at the end of each chapter. ... Overall, this is an excellent text on the subject, particularly for teachers and students of the basics of environmental studies.

    —Marinus L. Otte, University College Dublin, in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 172, Issue 2, June 2006