1st Edition

Equivalence Elizabeth L. Scott at Berkeley

By Amanda L. Golbeck Copyright 2017
    634 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by Chapman & Hall

    634 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by Chapman & Hall

    634 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by Chapman & Hall

    Equivalence: Elizabeth L. Scott at Berkeley is the compelling story of one pioneering statistician’s relentless twenty-year effort to promote the status of women in academe and science. Part biography and part microhistory, the book provides the context and background to understand Scott’s masterfulness at using statistics to help solve societal problems. In addition to being one of the first researchers to work at the interface of astronomy and statistics and an early practitioner of statistics using high-speed computers, Scott worked on an impressively broad range of questions in science, from whether cloud seeding actually works to whether ozone depletion causes skin cancer. Later in her career, Scott became swept up in the academic women’s movement. She used her well-developed scientific research skills together with the advocacy skills she had honed, in such activities as raising funds for Martin Luther King Jr. and keeping Free Speech Movement students out of jail, toward policy making that would improve the condition of the academic workforce for women. The book invites the reader into Scott’s universe, a window of inspiration made possible by the fact that she saved and dated every piece of paper that came across her desk.

    The Betty Book

    Caught in the Thick of It (1968)

    Work as Usual

    UC and the Urban Crisis

    Berkeley Women and the Urban Crisis

    Berkeley Women Begin to Organize

    A Complicated Set of Problems

    Thick Politics and Early Exhaustion

    Shaping the Life

    Boots and Saddles (Before 1932)


    Uncle and Father



    Aunt Phoebe's Telescope (1882-1967)

    Astronomy Education

    Computer Work

    Astronomy Doctoral Studies

    Lick Observatory Work

    Life Career Balance

    Becoming an Outlier (1932-1939)

    Move to California

    University High School Advantage

    Math Advantage

    Science Advantage

    High School to College

    Tunnel Road House

    Neyman Serendipity

    Klumpke Prize and Graduation

    Ten Thousand Hours of Practice (1939-1946)

    Year One-Getting up the Mountain

    Year Two-Summer at Mount Wilson

    Year Three-Beginning War Work

    Year Fou-Lick Fellowship

    Year Five-University Fellowship

    Year Six-Qualifying Exam

    Year Seven-Ending War Work

    Year Eight-Teaching and Research

    A Symmetric Intellectual Relationship

    A Rising Star (1947-1954)

    Prospects at Vassar

    Competing Offers

    The UC-Berkeley Decision

    Lecturer in Mathematics

    Remarkable Research

    Instructor in Mathematics

    Assistant Professor of Mathematics

    Trumpler's Book

    A Retrospective: Similarities and Differences

    A Retrospective: Influence

    Clusters of Impact

    Championing Science (1939-1988)

    Themes and Controversies

    Modern Statisticians, Old Equipment

    Statistical Astronomy

    General Statistical Methods

    Bioscience and Health

    Symposia, Panels, and Talks

    Managing Neyman

    The Case of Cloud Seeding (1950-1985)



    Radio Broadcast


    Association Leadership

    8.6 Relevance Today

    Almost Alone in Statistics (1955-1988)

    New Statistics Department (1955)


    Administrator and Professor

    Colleague Juliet Popper Shaffer

    Status and Resilience

    Students and Memories (1948-1988)


    On Mentoring

    On Generosity

    On Personality and Professionalism

    On Concentration

    On Political Acumen

    On Approach to Science

    On the Other Side

    On Gender

    Summing It Up

    Letters to Jerry (1954-1955)

    October 1954: Paris

    January 1955: Paris

    February 1955: Paris

    April 1955: Paris

    May 1955: Paris

    Thursday, May 5, 1955: Paris

    Sunday, May 8, 1955: Dieppe, Newhaven, Winchester

    Thursday, May 12, 1955: Oxford

    Thursday night, May 12, 1955: London

    Tuesday, May 17, 1955: Cambridge

    Wednesday, May 18, 1955: Paris

    Thursday morning, May 19, 1955: Paris (continuation of the previous letter)

    n.d: Paris

    Back in Paris

    Monday midnight [most likely May 23, 1955]: Paris

    Tuesday [May 24, 1955]: Paris

    May 26, 1955, 7:20 am: Paris

    Le 26 mai, 17 hr: Paris

    29 Mai 1955: Paris

    June 1st: Paris [1955]

    Saturday, June 4: Lisbon

    Soul Mates

    Civil Rights Advocacy (1950-1953, 1963-1968)

    Loyalty Oath

    IMS and Racial Segregation

    Civil Rights Solicitations

    Saving Aquatic Park

    Free Speech Movement

    A Changed Environment

    The Status of Academic Women at Berkeley

    A Disgraceful Situation

    (January-September 1969)

    Two Faculty Clubs

    Senate Subcommittee

    Data Collection

    Making Visible (October-December 1969)



    More Research

    Nearing End of Data Collection

    Not a Good Time (January-April 1970)

    One Club

    Counseling and Interpreting

    Problems in Zoology and Chemistry


    Problems in Mathematics

    Information Exchange

    Grounded in Hard Fact (May-June 1970)




    How to Proceed


    Getting on the Agenda

    A Tiny Beginning (June-July 1970)

    Copies Sent

    Advocacy Letters

    First Mention of Big Telescopes


    Persistence of Repeated Themes

    (August-December 1970)

    Hard Facts About Big Telescopes


    Not Ready to Vote

    Year End Follow-Ups

    We Intend to Do (January-March 1971)

    State and System Actions

    Club and Center Proposals

    De Facto Discrimination

    Budget Committee Attention


    Progress Report

    A Little Fire (April-May 1971)

    Finally on the Agenda


    Advisory Committees

    Class Action Complaint

    Awakened by Stories and Statistics

    Affirmative Action

    Not Easily Erased Overnight (June-July 1971)

    Prizes for Women

    Club Operations

    Doing More

    Issues and Recommendations


    No Women at the Top

    A Lot of Power (August-December 1971)

    New Advisory Committees

    Ideas for AAAS

    Policies and Practices

    LAW Mobilizes a Congressman

    Chancellor's CSAW Established


    Senate Resolution and Review


    Still Negotiating

    Weak, Grudging, Incomplete (January-February 1972)

    CCHE Assignment

    Angela Davis and UCLA

    Committee Concerns

    Agreement Over Personnel Files

    Louder Voices

    A New Chapter

    Time for Action (March-June 1972)

    Loss and Delay


    Affidavit, Dissent, Conferences, AAAS

    New Recommendations

    CCHE Deadlines, Topics, Connections

    Salary Equity Studies

    Facts of the Matter (July-December 1972)

    "Facts of the Matter"

    Club Accepts Women

    Women in Science

    Consult Now

    Focusing on Salary Data (January-July 1973)

    More Information Sharing

    More AAAS Activity

    Club Relationships

    Time for Affirmative Action

    Lack of Quorum

    Report Published

    `Lib' Flavor

    Society's Problem (August-December 1973)

    Vision for a Faculty Center

    Fong Hearing


    Women Generally Receive Less (January-April 1974)

    Including Salary Inequity

    Invited Speakerships

    AAUP Joint Committee Venture

    Criticizing \Underutilization" Methods

    Communicating Methods; Explosive Results

    Responding to \Blasts" and Supporting Individuals

    Conciliation Agreement

    Time to Improve Pay Reporting

    Big Telescopes Story Challenged

    AAUP Kit

    Persuasive Analysis (April-December 1974)

    CCHE Study

    Top 100 Salaries


    Campus Attitudes toward Affirmative Action

    Expertise Needed by AAUP

    Committee of Statisticians


    High Stakes (1975)

    Club Relationship Pains

    UC Progress and Problems

    Berkeley Pilot Study

    Initial Kit Progress

    Federal Testimony

    Pilot Studies Progress

    Not Nearly Enough

    Developing the Kit (1976)

    More UC Affirmative Action

    Club Merger Declined

    More Reports, Advocacy, Testimony

    Statistics Department Self-Evaluation

    Mills College

    Fighting to Hold Gains

    First Draft of Part I

    Rank as a Predictor

    Next Drafts

    Completing the Kit (1977)

    Praise and Potential for the Kit

    Old Master

    More Salary Work and Kit Dissemination

    Faculty Club Questionnaire

    Influencing Salaries (1978)

    Persisting Inequities

    Conferences and Colloquia

    Astronomy, Statistics, Engineering

    Ferber Collaboration


    Kit Promotion and Experience

    Affirmative Action Comments


    Final Decade of Leadership (1979-1988)

    More Women's Studies Publications

    More Honors

    Neyman's Stroke



    Betty's Fatal Stroke



    Amanda L. Golbeck is professor of biostatistics and associate dean for academic affairs in the Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. She has had a long-term interest in gender equity issues in academe that stems from her early association with Scott. Golbeck was the lead editor of Leadership and Women in Statistics (Chapman & Hall/CRC Press) and has had a number of published articles on gender issues in the statistics profession. In 2016, the Committee on Presidents of Statistical Societies selected Golbeck to receive the COPSS Elizabeth L. Scott Award.

    "This book is an amazing tour de force." ~ Juliet Shaffer, University of California-Berkeley

    "What an intriguing life Scott led!" ~ Deborah Bennett, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Ret.

    "The details of what was done when in response to situations are revealing and instructive. We should all have access to her story." ~ Brian Yandell, University of Wisconsin

    "The way in which Scott was able to continue her research while simultaneously serving the University system through her gender discrimination work is exemplary and should be inspirational to the academic women of today. Women are still recognised as being under-represented at higher levels of academia, particularly in science, even though it is now 50 years after Scott commenced her investigations! Men and women who are interested in the history of statistics and in the history of gender equity in universities will want to own this book. There is inspiration to be gained and lessons to be learnt by those who still face gender inequity in academia today." ~ Alice Richardson, ANU College of Medicine, Canberra

    "Equivalence tells the captivating story of statistician Elizabeth L. Scott, who was a trail blazer for all women in academia, and especially in statistics . . . During her entire time in the Statistics Department, she overlapped with only four other women . . . It is a story of the love, passion, and commitment exhibited by Betty throughout her personal and professional life. It also illustrates the love, passion, and commitment of the author (statistician Amanda Golbeck) for telling Betty’s story. . . Reading Equivalence was an eye-opening experience for me. Having received my PhD in Statistics in 1978, the book helped me place my academic career in a larger context. It felt somewhat like I had boarded a train part way through a treacherous journey, and only slowly came to realize the hardships the passengers had faced before reaching my embarkation point. It brought back memories of some of my early experiences . . ." ~ Jessica Utts, American Statistician