Ernest Hemingway  book cover
1st Edition

Ernest Hemingway

ISBN 9780415491204
Published September 12, 2011 by Routledge
1300 Pages

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Book Description

Few twentieth-century American writers have been as influential as Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961). Whilst contemporaries such as F. Scott Fitzgerald and William Faulkner may be as widely taught and studied as Hemingway, neither had an influence on other writers—or indeed, the cognate arts—as great as that of Hemingway. For example, the ‘hard-boiled’ school of detective fiction extending from the novels of Raymond Chandler and Dashiell Hammett to those of James Ellroy and Robert Parker is more or less inconceivable without Hemingway’s stylistic influence. Arguably, film noir is also Hemingwayesque in its laconic detachment. And quite independently of his creative writings, Hemingway’s life continues to exert a profound fascination for both student and the general reader.

Hemingway was the subject of extensive enquiry before his death and since then he has generated interpretative and critical commentary on a vast and bewildering scale, in part aided by the continuing publication of works left unpublished at his death (most notably The Garden of Eden in 1987). The dizzying quantity (and variable quality) of Hemingway criticism makes it difficult to discriminate the useful from the tendentious, superficial, and otiose. That is why this new Routledge title is so urgently needed. In four volumes, the collection meets the need for an authoritative reference work to allow researchers and students to make sense of a vast literature and the continuing explosion in research output. Users will now be able easily and rapidly to locate the best and most influential critical scholarship, work that is otherwise often inaccessible or scattered throughout a variety of specialist journals and books. With material gathered into one easy-to-use set, researchers and students can now spend more of their time with the key journal articles, book chapters, and other pieces, rather than on time-consuming (and sometimes fruitless) archival searches.

Fully indexed and with a comprehensive introduction newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, Ernest Hemingway is an essential reference work and is destined to be valued as a vital research resource.

Table of Contents


1. Michael Reynolds, ‘Ernest Hemingway: 1899–1961’, in Linda Wagner-Martin (ed.), A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 16–50.

2. Gertrude Stein, ‘Ernest Hemingway and the Post-War Decade’, Atlantic Monthly, 1933, 152, 197–208.

3. Allen Tate, ‘Miss Toklas’s America Cake’, Memoirs and Opinions (Swallow Press, 1975), pp. 59–66.

4. John Groth, ‘A Note on Ernest Hemingway’, Ernest Hemingway, Men Without Women (World Publishing, 1946), pp. 19–24.

5. Malcolm Cowley, ‘A Portrait of Mister Papa’, Life, 10 January 1949, 86–101.

6. William Forrest Dawson, ‘Ernest Hemingway: Petoskey Interview’, Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, 1958, LXIV, 114–23.

7. Leicester Hemingway, My Brother, Ernest Hemingway (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1962), pp. 19–43, 76–104, 267–83.

8. Philip Young. ‘Hemingway and Me: A Rather Long Story’, Kenyon Review, 1966, 28, 15–37.

9. Patrick Hemingway, ‘Islands in the Stream: A Son Remembers’, in James Nagel (ed.), Ernest Hemingway: The Writer in Context (University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), pp. 13–18.

10. George Plimpton, ‘Interview with Ernest Hemingway’, in George Plimpton (ed.), Writers at Work: The Paris Review Interviews (Penguin, 1972), pp. 175–96.

11. Michael S. Reynolds, ‘Hemingway’s Home: Depression and Suicide’, American Literature, 1982, 57, 4, 600–10.

12. Jackson J. Benson, ‘Ernest Hemingway: The Life as Fiction and the Fiction as Life’, American Literature, 1989, 61, 345–58.

Volume II


Hemingway in Europe

13. John W. Aldridge, ‘Hemingway and Europe’, Shenandoah, 1961, 12, 11–24.

14. Frederick J. Hoffman, The 1920s: American Writing in the Postwar Decade (Viking, 1962), pp. 87–97, 102–7.

15. Robert McAlmon, ‘1923–1924’, Being Geniuses Together, 1920–1930 (Hogarth Press, 1984), pp. 157–64.

16. Hugh Ford, Published in Paris: A Literary Chronicle of Paris in the 1920s and 1930s (Macmillan, 1975), pp. 104–8.

17. Mario Praz, ‘Hemingway in Italy’, in Roger Asselineau (ed.), The Literary Reputation of Hemingway in Europe (Lettres Modernes, 1965), pp. 93–123.

18. George Wickes, ‘Sketches of the Author’s Life in Paris in the Twenties’, in Jackson J. Benson and Richard Astro (eds.), Hemingway in Our Time (Oregon State University Press, 1974), pp. 25–38.

19. Harold T. McCarthy, ‘Hemingway and Life as Play’, The Expatriate Perspective (Associated University Presses), pp. 136–55.

20. Deming Brown, ‘Hemingway in Russia’, American Quarterly, 1953, 5, 145–61.

21. Andrew Gibson, ‘Hemingway on the British’, The Hemingway Review, 1982, 1, 2, 62–75.

Writers on the Writing

22. Virginia Woolf, ‘An Essay in Criticism’, New York Herald Tribune, 9 October 1927, 8.

23. T. S. Eliot, ‘A Commentary’, The Criterion, 1933, 12, 468–73.

24. Max Eastman, ‘Bull in the Afternoon’, New Republic, 1933, 75, 94–7.

25. Wyndham Lewis, ‘Ernest Hemingway: The Dumb Ox’, Men Without Art (Cassell & Co., 1934), pp. 17–41.

26. Delmore Schwartz, ‘Ernest Hemingway’s Literary Situation’, Southern Review, 1938, 3, 769–82.

27. H. E. Bates, ‘Hemingway’s Short Stories’ [1943], in Carlos Baker (ed.), Hemingway and His Critics: An International Anthology (Hill and Wang, 1961), pp. 71–9.

28. Robert Penn Warren, ‘Hemingway’, The Kenyon Review, 1947, 9, 1–28.

29. Saul Bellow, ‘Hemingway and the Image of Man’, Partisan Review, 1953, 20, 338–42.

30. Wright Morris, ‘The Function of Style: Ernest Hemingway’, The Territory Ahead (University of Nebraska Press, 1978), pp. 133–46.

31. Tom Stoppard, ‘Reflections on Ernest Hemingway’, Ernest Hemingway: The Writer in Context (University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), pp. 19–27.


32. F. Scott Fitzgerald, ‘Review of In Our Time’, The Bookman, 1926, 63, 264–5.

33. D. H. Lawrence, ‘Review of In Our Time’, Calendar of Modern Letters, 1927, 4, 72–3.

34. Sheldon Norman Grebstein, ‘The Reliable and Unreliable Narrator in Hemingway’s Stories’, Hemingway’s Craft (Southern Illinois University Press, 1973), pp. 56–67.

35. E. R. Hagemann, ‘Only Let the Story End as Soon as Possible: Time and History in Ernest Hemingway’s In Our Time’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1980–1, 26, 255–62.

36. Elizabeth D. Vaughn, ‘In Our Time as Self-Begetting Fiction’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1989, 35, 707–16.

37. Keith Carabine, ‘"Big Two-Hearted River": A Reinterpretation’, The Hemingway Review, 1982, 1, 2, 39–44.

38. Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren, ‘The Killers’, Understanding Fiction (Appleton-Century Crofts, 1959), pp. 303–12.

39. Frank O’Connor, ‘A Clean Well-Lighted Place’, The Lonely Voice: A Study of the Short Story (World Publishing, 1963), pp. 156–69.

40. David Lodge, ‘Hemingway’s Clean, Well-Lighted, Puzzling Place’, The Novelist at the Crossroads (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971), pp. 184–202.

41. John V. Hagopian, ‘Symmetry in "A Cat in the Rain"’, College English, 1962, 24, 220–2.

42. Virgil Hutton, ‘The Short Happy Life of Macomber, The University Review, 1964, 30, 253–63.

43. James J. Martine, ‘A Little Light on Hemingway’s "The Light of the World"’, Studies in Short Fiction, 1970, VII, 465–7.

44. Charles J. Nolan, Jr., ‘Hemingway’s "Out of Season": The Importance of Close Reading’, Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, 1999, 53, 45–58.

45. Martin Light, ‘Of Wasteful Deaths: Hemingway’s Stories about the Spanish War’, The Western Humanities Review, 1969, XXIII, 29–42.

46. Howard L. Hannum, ‘Hemingway’s Tales of "The Real Dark"’, in Susan F. Beegel (ed.), Hemingway’s Neglected Short Fiction: New Perspectives (University of Alabama Press, 1989), pp. 339–50.

Volume III


The Sun Also Rises (1926)

47. James T. Farrell, ‘The Sun Also Rises’, The League of Frightened Philistines (Vanguard Press, 1945), pp. 20–4.

48. Mark Spilka, ‘The Death of Love in The Sun Also Rises’, in Charles Shapiro (ed.), Twelve Original Essays on Great American Novels (Wayne State University Press, 1958), pp. 80–92.

49. Andrew Hook, ‘Art and Life in The Sun Also Rises’, in A. Robert Lee (ed.), Ernest Hemingway: New Critical Essays (Vision Press, 1983), pp. 49–63.

50. Ira Elliott, ‘Performance Art: Jake Barnes and "Masculine" Signification in The Sun Also Rises’, American Literature, 1995, 67, 1, 77–94.

51. Donald Pizer, ‘The Moment Imagined and Remembered: Fiction: Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises’, American Expatriate Writing and the Paris Moment: Modernism and Place (Louisiana State University Press, 1996), pp. 73–86.

A Farewell to Arms (1929)

52. Malcolm Cowley, ‘Review of A Farewell to Arms’, New York Herald Tribune, 6 October 1929, 1, 6.

53. T. S. Matthews, ‘Nothing Ever Happens to the Brave’, The New Republic, 9 October 1926, 208–10.

54. Henry Seidel Canby, ‘Review of A Farewell to Arms’, The Saturday Review of Literature, 12 October 1929, pp. 231–2.

55. Ford Madox Ford, Introduction to A Farewell to Arms (Random House, 1932), pp. ix–xx.

56. Otto Friedrich, ‘Ernest Hemingway: Joy Through Strength’, The American Scholar, Autumn 1957, 519–24.

57. Charles R. Anderson, ‘Hemingway’s Other Style’, Modern Language Notes, 1961, LXXVI, 434–42.

58. Blanche Gelfant, ‘Language as Moral Code in A Farewell to Arms’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1963, IX, 173–6.

59. Bernard Oldsey, ‘The Sense of an Ending in A Farewell to Arms’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1977, 23, 491–508.

60. Judith Fetterley, ‘A Farewell to Arms: Hemingway’s "Resentful Cryptogram"’, The Resisting Reader: A Feminist Approach to American Fiction (Indiana University Press, 1978), pp. 46–71.

To Have and Have Not (1937)

61. Malcolm Cowley, ‘Hemingway: Work in Progress’, The New Republic, 20 October 1937, 310–14.

62. Gerry Brenner, ‘To Have and Have Not as Classical Tragedy: Reconsidering Hemingway’s Neglected Novel’, in Richard Astro and Jackson J. Benson (eds.), Hemingway in Our Time (Oregon State University Press, 1974), pp. 67–86.

63. Wirt Williams, ‘To Have and Have Not: The Hero of the Bold Choice’, The Tragic Art of Ernest Hemingway (Louisiana State University Press, 1981), pp. 107–22.

For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)

64. Alvah C. Bessie, ‘Review of For Whom the Bell Tolls’, New Masses, 1940, XXXVII, 25–9.

65. Edmund Wilson, ‘Ernest Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls’, New Republic, 1940, CIII, 591–2.

66. Malcolm Cowley, ‘Hemingway’s "Nevertheless"’, New Republic, 1941, CIV, 89–90.

67. Dwight MacDonald, ‘Hemingway’s Unpolitical Political Novel’, Partisan Review, January–February 1941, 24–8.

68. W. H. Mellers, ‘The Ox in Spain’, Scrutiny, 1941, X, 93–9.

69. Arturo Barea, ‘Not Spain but Hemingway’, trans. Ilsa Barea, Horizon, 1941, III, 350–61.

70. William T. Moynihan, ‘The Martyrdom of Robert Jordan’, College English, 1959, XXI, 127–32.

71. John Graham, ‘Ernest Hemingway: The Meaning of Style’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1960, VI, 298–313.

72. A. Robert Lee, ‘"Everything Completely Knit Up": Seeing For Whom the Bell Tolls Whole’, Ernest Hemingway: New Critical Essays (Vision Press, 1983), pp. 79–102.

Across the River and Into the Trees (1950)

73. Evelyn Waugh, ‘Winner Take Nothing: Review of Across the River and into the Trees’, Tablet, 30 November 1950, 290–1.

74. Joseph Warren Beach, ‘How Do You Like It Now, Gentlemen?’, Sewanee Review, 1951, LIX, 311–28.

75. Horst Oppel, ‘Hemingway’s Across the River and Into the Trees’, trans. Joseph M. Bernstein, in Carlos Baker (ed.), Hemingway and His Critics: An International Anthology (Hill and Wang, 1961), pp. 213–26.

76. Jackson J. Benson, ‘Dark Laughter’, Hemingway: The Writer’s Art of Self-Defense (University of Minnesota Press, 1969), pp. 47–69.

The Old Man and the Sea (1952)

77. Mark Schorer, ‘With Grace Under Pressure’, New Republic, 1952, CXXVII, 19–20.

78. Leo Gurko, ‘The Old Man and the Sea’, College English, 1955, XVII, 11–15.

79. Clinton S. Burhans, Jr., ‘The Old Man and the Sea: Hemingway’s Tragic Vision of Man’, American Literature, 1960, XXXI, 446–55.

80. Robert P. Weeks, ‘Fakery in The Old Man and the Sea’, College English, 1962, XXIV, 188–92.

81. David Timms, ‘Contrasts in Form: Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea and Faulkner’s "The Bear"’, in A. Robert Lee (ed.), The Modern American Novella (Vision Press, 1989), pp. 97–113.

Islands in the Stream (1970)

82. John W. Aldridge, ‘Islands in the Stream’, The Devil in the Fire: Retrospective Essays on American Literature and Culture, 1951–1971 (Harper’s Magazine Press, 1972), pp. 91–100.

83. Joseph M. DeFalco, ‘Hemingway’s Islands and Streams: Minor Tactics for Heavy Pressure’, in Richard Astro and Jackson J. Benson (eds.), Hemingway in Our Time (Oregon State University Press, 1974), pp. 39–51.

84. Gregory S. Sojka, ‘Art and Order in Islands in the Stream’, in Donald R. Noble (ed.), Hemingway: A Revaluation (Whiston Publishing Company, 1983), pp. 263–80.

The Garden of Eden (1986)

85. Mark Spilka, ‘Hemingway’s Barbershop Quartet: "The Garden of Eden" Manuscript’, Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 1987, 21, 1, 29–55.

86. J. Gerald Kennedy, ‘Hemingway’s Gender Trouble’, American Literature, 1991, 63, 2, 187–207.



87. Lincoln Kirstein, ‘The Canon of Death’, Hound and Horn, 1933, VI, 336–41.

88. J. Kashkeen, ‘Ernest Hemingway: A Tragedy of Craftsmanship’, International Literature, 1935, 5, 76–108.

89. Edgar Johnson, ‘Farewell the Separate Peace: The Rejections of Ernest Hemingway’, Sewanee Review, 1940, XLVIII, 289–300.


90. Edmund Wilson, ‘Hemingway: Gauge of Morale’, The Wound and the Bow (Houghton Mifflin, 1941), pp. 214–22.

91. David Daiches, ‘Ernest Hemingway’, College English, 1941, 2, 8, 725–36.

92. Alfred Kazin, On Native Grounds: An Interpretation of Modern American Literature (Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1942), pp. 327–41.

93. D. S. Savage, ‘Ernest Hemingway’, The Withered Branch: Six Studies in the Modern Novel (Eyre & Spottiswode, 1950), pp. 23–43.

94. Harry Levin, ‘Observations on the Style of Ernest Hemingway’, Kenyon Review, 1951, XIII, 581–609.

95. E. M. Halliday, ‘Hemingway’s Narrative Perspective’, Sewanee Review, 1952, LX, 115–24.

96. Frederick J. Hoffman, ‘No Beginning and No End: Hemingway and Death’, Essays in Criticism, 1953, III , 73–84.

97. Delmore Schwartz, ‘The Fiction of Ernest Hemingway’, Perspectives, 1955, 13, 70–88.

98. Robert C. Hart, ‘Hemingway on Writing’, College English, 1957, 18, 314–20.

99. Nemi D’Agostino, ‘The Later Hemingway’ [1956], Sewanee Review, 1960, LXVIII, 482–93.


100. Cleanth Brooks, ‘Ernest Hemingway: Man on His Moral Uppers’, The Hidden God: Studies in Hemingway, Faulkner, Yeats, Eliot, and Warren (Yale University Press, 1963), pp. 6–21.

101. Wesley A. Kort, ‘Human Time in Hemingway’s Fiction’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1980–1, 26, 579–96.

102. Jeffrey Walsh, ‘Emblematical of War: The Representation of Combat in Hemingway’s Fiction’, The Hemingway Review, 1982, 1, 45–57.

103. Herbie Butterfield, ‘Ernest Hemingway’, in Richard Gray (ed.), American Fiction: New Readings (Vision Press, 1983), pp. 184–99.

104. Kenneth J. Johnston, ‘Hemingway and Cezanne: Doing the Country’, American Literature, 1984, 56, 1, 28–37.

105. Robert Merrill, ‘Demoting Hemingway: Feminist Criticism and the Canon’, American Literature, 1988, 60, 2, 255–68.

106. James C. McKelly, ‘From Whom the Bull Flows: Hemingway in Parody’, American Literature, 1989, 61, 4, 547–62.

107. Robert Paul Lamb, ‘Hemingway and the Creation of Twentieth-Century Dialogue’, Twentieth-Century Literature, 1996, 42, 453–80.

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