Essential Management Skills for Pharmacy and Business Managers: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Essential Management Skills for Pharmacy and Business Managers

1st Edition

By Titus De Silva

Productivity Press

464 pages | 21 B/W Illus.

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Description

As a manager you will be expected to resolve a range of legal, ethical, operational, human resource, and financial issues that affect your organization. Essential Management Skills for Pharmacy and Business Managers supplies the understanding you will need to manage the day-to-day challenges in this increasingly competitive environment. Presenting a wealth of information on how to resolve common issues across all sectors of the pharmacy environment, it uses case studies to illustrate the methods required to create a patient-focused business where teamwork flourishes and continuous improvement becomes a reality.

The book describes the kinds of things that will most often go wrong in organizations of all types and sizes and provides proven methods for resolving these issues. It explains how to develop and implement an effective quality management system in the pharmacy or a retail operation that complies with external standards. Outlining an efficient performance appraisal system, it describes how to manage diversity and details time-tested problem solving, conflict management, and stress management techniques.

With coverage that includes employee management, quality management, and quality assurance, the book describes how to create a harmonious work environment that promotes effective communication between pharmacy staff, medical professionals, care givers, patients, and customers. Complete with links to further information in each chapter, it arms you with the tools to empower and motivate your employees to provide world-class patient and customer care.

Reviews

A very comprehensive book that, if thoroughly read, understood, and implemented, will lead to best practice for this industry sector. … I recommend this book as compulsory reading at least for all pharmacy and business management, professional or otherwise, but more particularly as a compressive training manual for all staff in a group environment.

—Bruce Craig Munro (CNZM), BSC, BCA, ACA, Former CEO,Penfolds Wines Limited, New Zealand and Chairman of the New Zealand Wool Board

One clear conclusion is that the vast literature on business management can give a range of answers on important issues … . This book puts these generic issues into the specific context of the community pharmacy and gives sound and valuable advice on how to successfully manage this type of business.

—Dr. David Taylor, BSc Pharmacy (Hons)., PhD, Former Director of Product Development, Analytical Development, and Project Management, AstraZeneca, UK

Table of Contents

Managing Professionals

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Attributes of a Professional

Needs of a Professional

Leadership Style

Techniques for Managing Professionals

Dealing with Performance Issues

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Management Theories

Introduction

Classical Management Approach

Scientific Management

Administrative Management

Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy

Behavioral Management Approach

Hawthorne Studies

Maslow’s Motivation Theory

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

Management Science Theory

Organizational Environment Theory

Open and Closed Systems Theories

Contingency Theory

References

Managing a Pharmacy

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Management Styles

Types of Managers

Traditional Roles of a Manager

Planning

Organizing

Directing

Coordinating

Controlling

Management Skills

Technical and Professional Skills

Conceptual and Intellectual Skills

Ethical Skills

Human Resource Skills

Pharmacy Manager’s Roles

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Managing Change

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Triggers

History of Changes

Three Components of Change

Component of Scope

Component of Depth

Component of Duration

Methods of Achieving Changes

Structural Change

Cost Cutting

Process Change

Cultural Change

Resistance to Change

Insecurity and Fear

Social Issues

Economic Issues

Stability

Impact on Business Units of the Organization

Inconvenience

Unions

Overcoming Resistance to Change

Lewin’s Change Process Model

Managing Change

Longest’s Plan

Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan

Pettinger’s Four-Step Plan

Newton’s Nine-Step Plan

Change Management Models in Health System Pharmacy Practice in the United States

Proposed Structure for Change Management

Competencies of a Change Agent

Why Change Management Fails

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Managing Risk

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Type of Risks

How Do Mistakes Happen?

Continuous Risk Management Process

Identification of Risks

Risk Analysis

Planning

Tracking

Control

Communication

Why Do Risk Management Programs Fail?

Case Study of a Successful Risk Management Program

Stage 1: Oversight Committee

Stage 2: Five-Component Risk Management Program

Stage 3: Creating a Culture of Life Safety and Management Risk

Outcome

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Problem Solving

Scenario

Introduction

The Process

Identification of the Problem

Collection of Data

Identification of the Causes of the Problem

Selection of Causes.

Generating Solutions

Evaluation of the Solution for Feasibility

Selection of the Best Options or Options

Generation of the Action Plan

Implementation and Monitoring

Barriers for Implementation

Systematic Problem Solving: Xerox Case Study

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Conflict Resolution

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

What Conflict Is Not

Types of Conflict

Skills Necessary for Conflict Resolution

Listening

Questioning

Nonverbal Communication

Negotiation

Conflict Resolution Process

Strategies for Managing Conflict

Strategies for Managing Disagreement at the Point of Conflict

Strategies for Managing Conflict upon Escalation

Prevention of Conflict

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Managing Stress at Work

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Measurement of Stress Levels among Pharmacists

Impact of Stress

Response to Stress

Models of Stress

Cognitive Appraisal Model

Transactional Model

Health Realization/Innate Health Model

Management of Stress

Individual Stress Management Programs (ISMPs)

Organizational Changes

Prevention of Stress

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Team Building

Scenario

Introduction

Groups and Teams

Benefits of Team Approach

Types of Teams

Teams That Recommend Things

Teams That Make or Do Things

Teams That Run Things

Skill Requirements

Why Teams Are Necessary

How to Build a Successful Team

Stages in Developing Teams

Enhancing Team Performance

Indications of a Winning Team

Team Building Exercises

Teams in Large Organizations and Business Units

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Effective Communication

Scenario

Introduction

Communication Needs of Health Professionals

Benefits of Effective Communication

Communication Process

Communication Components and Methods

Nonverbal Communication

Communication Skills

Managing Communication

How to Improve the Effectiveness of Communication

Improving Communication between Pharmacist and Patient

Communication Barriers

How to Overcome Communication Barriers

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Leadership

Scenario

Introduction

Leadership and Management

Visionary Leadership in Pharmacy Practice

Pharmacy Leadership in High-Performance Pharmacy Practice

Leadership Theories

Leadership Skills

Leadership Styles

Leadership Styles in the United States, United Kingdom, and Ireland

Emotional Intelligence

Self-Awareness

Self-Regulation

Motivation

Empathy

Social Skill

Leadership Wisdom

Which Style Is Most Suitable?

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Effective Delegation

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Benefits of Delegation

Essential Skills for Delegation

Process of Delegation

Barriers to Delegation

Case Study of a Successful Delegation in Pharmacy Practice in the United

States

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Empowerment

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Benefits and Costs of Empowerment

Creating a Path to Empowerment

Effect of Control Systems on Empowerment

Dimensions of Empowerment

Steps for Developing Empowerment

Patient Empowerment

Case Study: The Role of Pharmacists in Primary Care

Barriers for Implementing Empowerment

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Motivation

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Motivation Model and Phases of Motivation

Motivation Theories

Needs-Based Theories

Extrinsic Factor Theories

Intrinsic Factor Theories

Benefits of Motivation

Motivational Strategies

Principles of Motivation

Role of Incentives

How to Motivate Pharmacy Staff

Motivating Pharmacy Staff for Continuing Education

Why Managers Fail to Motivate Employees

Motivation of Managers

Case Studies Based on the Model of Nohria et al. (2008)

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Managing Cultural Diversity at Work

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Diversity

Multiculturalism

Culture

Values

Norms

Key Cultural Indicators

Challenges of Diversity

Benefits of Diversity

Healthcare Needs of Minority Groups in the United States

Creation of a Diverse Healthcare Workforce

Necessary Skills for Managing Diversity

Managing Diversity

Guidelines for Multicultural Collaboration

Case Study from New Zealand

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Performance Review

Scenario

Introduction

Purpose

Objectives

Benefits of Performance Review

Performance Appraisal of Pharmacy Staff

Appraisal Methods

Nontraditional Appraisal Methods

Atlassian’s Experiment

Work Performance and Review (WP&R) Method

Positive Program for Performance Appraisal

Case Studies of Successful Performance Appraisal Systems

Development of a Performance Evaluation System for Pharmacy Staff

Proposed Method for Evaluating Pharmacists

Part 1: Monitoring Work Performance

Part 2: Biannual Review—Evaluation of Managerial and Leadership Skills

Part 3: Action Plan

Part 4: Agreement

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Quality Management Systems

Introduction

Definitions

General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC) Standards

Quality Assurance Programs on Pharmacy Practice

NHS Quality, Innovation, Productivity, and Prevention Programme (QIPP)

Australian Quality Care Pharmacy Programme (QCPP)

Professional Practice Standards (PPS) and the Standards for the Provision of Pharmacy Medicines and Pharmacist-Only Medicines in Community Pharmacy

Quality Management Principles

References

Quality Management System for Pharmacy Practice

Introduction

Small Business Standard (SBS)

The Key Elements of the SBS

Management Responsibility

Business Reviews

Customer Care

Staff

Working Environment and Processes

Suppliers

Documentation

Preventing and Correcting Product or Service Problems

Records

Process for Designing a QMS

Prerequisites

Identifying Core and Support Processes

Assurance Processes

Process Approach

The Structure of the QMS

Operations Manuals

Policy Manual

Procedures Manual

Work Instructions

Completing the Manuals

References

Audits and Reviews

Scenario

Introduction

Definitions

Management Review

Auditing Styles

Inspectorial Style

"Show and Tell" Style

Collaborative Style

Types of Audit

Product Audit

Process Audit

System Audit

Classification Based on Who Carries Out the Audit

First-Party Audits

Second-Party Audits

Third-Party Audits

Specific Purpose Audits

Audit Skills

Behavioral Skills

Technical Skills

Management Skills

Audit Process

Planning

Conducting the Audit (Figure 19.1)

Audit Report

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Dispensing Errors and Near Misses

Scenario

Introduction

Incidence of Dispensing Errors and Near Misses

Dispensing Errors in the United Kingdom

Dispensing Errors in the United States

Causes of Dispensing Errors

Use of Bar Code Technology and Automatic Dispensing

Application of Crew Resource Management

Management of Errors

Preventive Measures

Prescribing Errors

Dispensing Process

Administration Errors

Management Responsibility

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Patient Complaints

Scenario

Introduction

Significance of Patient Complaints

Benefits of an Effective Complaints Management System

Why Do Patients Complain?

How to Handle Complaints

Management of Complaints

Revisiting the Scenario

References

Appendices

About the Author

Titus De Silva, PhD gained his pharmacy degree (with honors) from the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. He has worked in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Japan, and Kuwait in all sectors of pharmacy practice (hospital, community, academia, research, and industry) and also in the beverage industry. For over 30 years, he held senior management positions in New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and Sri Lanka. Before immigrating to New Zealand, he was the head of the National Drugs Quality Control Laboratory in Sri Lanka. During his time in Sri Lanka, he was a visiting lecturer and examiner at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Colombo School of Pharmacy. While in Kuwait, he served as a specialist in drug analysis and quality control under its Ministry of Health. In Japan, he was attached to the National Institute of Hygienic Science in Tokyo, where he worked with experts in pharmaceutical science. Organizations he worked for include Southland Hospital Board (New Zealand), Hoechst Pharmaceuticals (New Zealand), Pernod-Ricard (New Zealand), Eli Lilly Research (UK), Ballinger’s Pharmacy (New Zealand), Boots Chemists (UK), and Lloyds Pharmacy (UK).

In addition to his pharmacy qualifications, he has a BSc degree in chemistry, postgraduate diploma in computer science, and MBA and PhD in management science. He is a chartered chemist (CChem), a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC), a member of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (MRPharmS), and a member of the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand (MPS).

Pernod-Ricard (previously Montana Wines Limited) owned the largest multiple winery in New Zealand, with wineries in four regions. In his role as their corporate quality assurance manager, he was responsible for developing and implementing quality, food safety and occupational safety, and hygiene management systems to comply with international standards. His efforts were rewarded when Montana Wines Limited became the first winery in Australasia to have its quality management system certified to the ISO 9000 standard. In his role, he coached and trained staff for management positions.

Dr. De Silva’s expertise has been sought after by professional organizations. He has presented numerous papers at international seminars and published a number of papers and articles on quality management, food safety, pharmacy practice, and topics of general interest in management journals and magazines. He was the co-author of the chapter “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point” in the book Handbook of Food Preservation, published by Marcel Dekker, New York (1st edition) (1999). In the second edition of Handbook of Food Preservation, he was the author of the revised “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)” chapter and the “Good Manufacturing Practices” chapter (published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, in July 2007). His book Handbook of Good Pharmacy Practice was published in 2011in Sri Lanka.

He has gained competency as a lead auditor and was a registered auditor in quality management and occupational safety and hygiene. Dr. De Silva was a member of the review board of the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ) and a member of its technical advisory council. JAS-ANZ is the sole body responsible for accrediting certifying bodies in Australia and New Zealand. He has also been enlisted as a consultant to United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). In 2004, the New Zealand government awarded him the Queen’s Service Medal for services to the New Zealand community.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS041000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Management
BUS070080
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Industries / Service Industries
MED002000
MEDICAL / Administration
MED071000
MEDICAL / Pharmacology