# Essential Physics

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## Book Description

Fluency with physics fundamentals and problem-solving has a collateral effect on students by enhancing their analytical reasoning skills. In a sense, physics is to intellectual pursuits what strength training is to sports.

Designed for a two-semester algebra-based course,** Essential Physics** provides a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of physics central to many fields. It omits material often found in much larger texts that cannot be covered in a year-long course and is not needed for non-physics majors. Instead, this text focuses on providing a solid understanding of basic physics and physical principles. While not delving into the more specialized areas of the field, the text thoroughly covers mechanics, electricity and magnetism, light, and modern physics.

This book is appropriate for a course in which the goals are to give the students a grasp of introductory physics and enhance their analytical problem-solving skills. Each topic includes worked examples. Math is introduced as necessary, with some applications in biology, chemistry, and safety science also provided. If exposure to more applications, special topics, and concepts is desired, this book can be used as a problem-solving supplement to a more inclusive text.

## Table of Contents

**Systems of Units, Significant Figures, Coordinate Systems, and Vectors**Systems of Units

Conversion of Units

Significant Figures

Scientific Notation

Trigonometry

Coordinate Systems

Vectors

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors

Guideline for Determining the Direction of the Resultant

**Motion in One Dimension**

**Displacement**

Average Velocity

Average Speed

Instantaneous Velocity

Acceleration

Equations of Motion

Free-Falling Object

**Two-Dimensional Motion and Circular Motion**

**Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration**

Equations of Motion in Two Dimensions

Projectile Motion

Uniform Circular Motion

Linear Velocity, Angular Velocity, Period, and Frequency

Nonuniform Circular Motion

**Newton’s Laws: Implications and Applications**

**Statement of Newton’s Laws**

Discussion of Newton’s Laws of Motion

Free Body Diagram

Remarks on the Application of Newton’s Second and Third Laws

Newton’s Gravitational Law

Mass, Weight, and Newton’s Gravitational Law

Newton’s Third Law and Apparent Weight

Dynamics of a Uniform Circular Motion

**Newton’s Laws: Friction in Linear and Circular Motions**

**Frictional Forces**

Banked Roads

**Work and Energy**

**Work**

Work–Energy Theorem

Conservative Forces

Potential Energy

Nonconservative Forces and the Total Mechanical Energy

Power

**Linear Momentum and Collision**

**Systems of Particles**

Motion of the Center of Mass

Linear Momentum of a System of Particles

Collisions and Change in Linear Momentum

Impulse

Collisions in Two Dimensions

Types of Collision

**Rotational Motion**

**Angular Kinematic Quantities**

Rotational Motion in a Plane

Torque

Rigid Body

Moment of Inertia

Parallel Axis Theorem

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

Angular Momentum

Rotational Kinetic Energy

A Rigid Body in Translational and Rotational Motions

Total Mechanical Energy of a Rigid Body

**Simple Harmonic Motion**

**Hooke’s Law**

Potential Energy of a Spring

Mass-Spring System in SHM

Simple Pendulum in SHM

**Thermal Physics: Temperature, Heat, and Thermal Expansion**

**Heat is a Form of Energy, Specific Heat, and Heat Capacity**

Heat and Internal Energy

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Thermometers and Temperature Scales

Thermal Expansion

Calorimetry

Heat Transfer: Transfer by Conduction

**Waves and Wave Motion**

**Wave Motion**

Types of Waves

Mathematical Treatment of an Ideal Wave

Intensity of Waves

Superposition of Waves: Interference and Standing Waves

**Fluids**

**Pressure: Definition and Units**

Pressure Within Fluids

Density of Fluids

Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Static Fluid

Pascal’s Principle and Applications

Archimedes’ Principle

Dynamics of Fluids: Equation of Continuity

Bernoulli’s Equation

**Electric Forces and Fields**

**Introduction**

Conductors and Insulators: Charged Objects

Coulomb’s Law

The Electric Field

Conductors in an Electric Field

Gauss’ Law

**Electric Potential Energy and Potential**

**Introduction**

Potential Energy

Electric Potential

Electric Potential of Point charges: Spatially Varying E

**Direct Current Circuits**

**Introduction**

Ohm’s Law

Resistivity

Simple Circuits

Electric Power

Kirchhoff’s Rules

Capacitors

**Magnetic Forces and Fields**

**Introduction**

The Magnetic Field

The Magnetic Force on an Electric Current

Magnetic Fields Produced by Moving Charges

Magnetic Materials and Permanent Magnets

**Electromagnetic Induction**

**Introduction**

Faraday’s Law

Electric Generators

Self-Inductance

Transformers

**Alternating Current Electric Circuits**

**Introduction**

Alternating Signals

Phase Relations in Simple AC Circuits

RCL Series Circuit

Root-Mean-Square Average Values, Power

**Electromagnetic Waves**

**Introduction**

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

**Geometrical Optics**

**Introduction**

Wavefronts and Rays

Reflection

Refraction

Thin Lenses

Optical Instruments

**Physical (Wave) Optics**

**Introduction**

Double-Slit Experiment

Thin-Film Interference

Single-Slit Diffraction

The Diffraction Grating

Polarization

**Modern Physics**

**Introduction**

Atoms

Line Spectra

The Bohr Model

Beyond the Bohr Model

The Periodic Table of Elements

X-Rays

Quantum Physics

Thermal Radiation

Wave–Particle Duality

Quantum Mechanics

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

The Atomic Nucleus, Radioactivity