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Essential Physics
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Book Description
Fluency with physics fundamentals and problemsolving has a collateral effect on students by enhancing their analytical reasoning skills. In a sense, physics is to intellectual pursuits what strength training is to sports.
Designed for a twosemester algebrabased course, Essential Physics provides a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of physics central to many fields. It omits material often found in much larger texts that cannot be covered in a yearlong course and is not needed for nonphysics majors. Instead, this text focuses on providing a solid understanding of basic physics and physical principles. While not delving into the more specialized areas of the field, the text thoroughly covers mechanics, electricity and magnetism, light, and modern physics.
This book is appropriate for a course in which the goals are to give the students a grasp of introductory physics and enhance their analytical problemsolving skills. Each topic includes worked examples. Math is introduced as necessary, with some applications in biology, chemistry, and safety science also provided. If exposure to more applications, special topics, and concepts is desired, this book can be used as a problemsolving supplement to a more inclusive text.
Table of Contents
Systems of Units, Significant Figures, Coordinate Systems, and Vectors
Systems of Units
Conversion of Units
Significant Figures
Scientific Notation
Trigonometry
Coordinate Systems
Vectors
Addition and Subtraction of Vectors
Guideline for Determining the Direction of the Resultant
Motion in One Dimension
Displacement
Average Velocity
Average Speed
Instantaneous Velocity
Acceleration
Equations of Motion
FreeFalling Object
TwoDimensional Motion and Circular Motion
Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration
Equations of Motion in Two Dimensions
Projectile Motion
Uniform Circular Motion
Linear Velocity, Angular Velocity, Period, and Frequency
Nonuniform Circular Motion
Newton’s Laws: Implications and Applications
Statement of Newton’s Laws
Discussion of Newton’s Laws of Motion
Free Body Diagram
Remarks on the Application of Newton’s Second and Third Laws
Newton’s Gravitational Law
Mass, Weight, and Newton’s Gravitational Law
Newton’s Third Law and Apparent Weight
Dynamics of a Uniform Circular Motion
Newton’s Laws: Friction in Linear and Circular Motions
Frictional Forces
Banked Roads
Work and Energy
Work
Work–Energy Theorem
Conservative Forces
Potential Energy
Nonconservative Forces and the Total Mechanical Energy
Power
Linear Momentum and Collision
Systems of Particles
Motion of the Center of Mass
Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
Collisions and Change in Linear Momentum
Impulse
Collisions in Two Dimensions
Types of Collision
Rotational Motion
Angular Kinematic Quantities
Rotational Motion in a Plane
Torque
Rigid Body
Moment of Inertia
Parallel Axis Theorem
Equilibrium of a Rigid Body
Angular Momentum
Rotational Kinetic Energy
A Rigid Body in Translational and Rotational Motions
Total Mechanical Energy of a Rigid Body
Simple Harmonic Motion
Hooke’s Law
Potential Energy of a Spring
MassSpring System in SHM
Simple Pendulum in SHM
Thermal Physics: Temperature, Heat, and Thermal Expansion
Heat is a Form of Energy, Specific Heat, and Heat Capacity
Heat and Internal Energy
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Thermometers and Temperature Scales
Thermal Expansion
Calorimetry
Heat Transfer: Transfer by Conduction
Waves and Wave Motion
Wave Motion
Types of Waves
Mathematical Treatment of an Ideal Wave
Intensity of Waves
Superposition of Waves: Interference and Standing Waves
Fluids
Pressure: Definition and Units
Pressure Within Fluids
Density of Fluids
Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Static Fluid
Pascal’s Principle and Applications
Archimedes’ Principle
Dynamics of Fluids: Equation of Continuity
Bernoulli’s Equation
Electric Forces and Fields
Introduction
Conductors and Insulators: Charged Objects
Coulomb’s Law
The Electric Field
Conductors in an Electric Field
Gauss’ Law
Electric Potential Energy and Potential
Introduction
Potential Energy
Electric Potential
Electric Potential of Point charges: Spatially Varying E
Direct Current Circuits
Introduction
Ohm’s Law
Resistivity
Simple Circuits
Electric Power
Kirchhoff’s Rules
Capacitors
Magnetic Forces and Fields
Introduction
The Magnetic Field
The Magnetic Force on an Electric Current
Magnetic Fields Produced by Moving Charges
Magnetic Materials and Permanent Magnets
Electromagnetic Induction
Introduction
Faraday’s Law
Electric Generators
SelfInductance
Transformers
Alternating Current Electric Circuits
Introduction
Alternating Signals
Phase Relations in Simple AC Circuits
RCL Series Circuit
RootMeanSquare Average Values, Power
Electromagnetic Waves
Introduction
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Geometrical Optics
Introduction
Wavefronts and Rays
Reflection
Refraction
Thin Lenses
Optical Instruments
Physical (Wave) Optics
Introduction
DoubleSlit Experiment
ThinFilm Interference
SingleSlit Diffraction
The Diffraction Grating
Polarization
Modern Physics
Introduction
Atoms
Line Spectra
The Bohr Model
Beyond the Bohr Model
The Periodic Table of Elements
XRays
Quantum Physics
Thermal Radiation
Wave–Particle Duality
Quantum Mechanics
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
The Atomic Nucleus, Radioactivity
Support Material
Ancillaries

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