1st Edition

Essential Principles of Image Sensors

By Takao Kuroda Copyright 2015
    192 Pages 180 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    192 Pages 180 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Providing a succinct introduction to the systemization, noise sources, and signal processes of image sensor technology, Essential Principles of Image Sensors discusses image information and its four factors: space, light intensity, wavelength, and time. Featuring clarifying and insightful illustrations, this must-have text:

    • Explains how image sensors convert optical image information into image signals
    • Treats space, wavelength, and time as digitized built-in coordinate points in image sensors and systems
    • Details the operational principles, pixel technology, and evolution of CCD, MOS, and CMOS sensors with updated technology
    • Describes sampling theory, presenting unique figures demonstrating the importance of phase
    • Explores causes for the decline of image information quality

    In a straightforward manner suitable for beginners and experts alike, Essential Principles of Image Sensors covers key topics related to digital imaging including semiconductor physics, component elements necessary for image sensors, silicon as a sensitive material, noises in sensors, and more.

    Preface to English Version

    Preface to Japanese Version


    Task of Imaging and Role of Image Sensors

    Factors Constructing Image Information

    Image Sensor Output and Structure of Image Signal

    Monochrome Still Images

    Color Still Images

    Color Moving Images

    Functional Elements of Image Sensors


    Device Elements and Circuits for Image Sensors

    Device Element Components

    Foundation of Silicon Device Physics


    MOS Structure

    Buried MOS Structure



    Buried Photodiode/Pinned Photodiode

    Silicon as a Photosensitive Material

    np Photodiode on p-Type Substrate

    npn Photodiode on p-Well

    Circuit Components

    Floating Diffusion Amplifier

    Source Follower Amplifier

    Correlated Double Sampling Circuit


    Major Types of Noise in Image Sensors

    Amplitude of Noise

    Circuitry Noise (kTC Noise)

    Transistor Noise

    1/f Noise

    Thermal Noise

    Random Telegraph Noise

    Shot Noise

    FDA Noise Reduction by CDS


    Integration Period and Scanning Mode

    Progressive Mode

    Interlaced Mode

    Electronic Shutter Mode

    Types of Image Sensors

    CCD Sensors

    Principle of CCDs

    Pixel Technology of IT-CCD

    Vertical Overflow Drain Structure

    Depleted Photodiode and Transfer Mechanism

    Buried Photodiode/Pinned Photodiode

    Progress of CCD Sensor

    MOS Sensors

    Principle of MOS Sensors

    Pixel Technology of MOS Sensors

    Progress in MOS Sensors

    CMOS Sensors

    Principle of CMOS Sensors

    Pixel Technology of CMOS Sensors

    Progress in CMOS Sensors

    Noise Reduction Circuits in Analog Output Sensor

    Digital Output Sensors

    Sensitivity Improvement Technology

    Lightguide (Lightpipe)

    Backside Illuminated Sensors

    Front Side Illuminated Sensor

    Organic Sensors

    Electronic Shutter

    Electronic Shutter of CCD Sensors

    Electronic Shutter of MOS and CMOS Sensors

    Comparison of Situation and Prospects of Each Sensor Type


    Impacts of Digitization by Built-In Coordinate Points on Image Information Quality

    Sampling and Sampling Theorem

    Sampling in Space Domain

    Sampling in Time Domain

    Sampling in Wavelength Domain and Color Information


    Technologies to Improve Image Information Quality

    Light Intensity Information


    Dynamic Range

    Space Information

    Time Information

    Frame-Based Sensors

    Imaging Modes

    Event-Driven Sensor

    Color and Wavelength Information

    Single-Chip Color Camera System

    Multiband Camera System

    Hyperspectral Imaging System


    Imaging Systems

    Deteriorating Elements of Image Information Quality

    Signal Processing

    Defect Correction, Brightness Correction

    White Balance


    Color Conversion

    Color and Tone Matching

    Noise Reduction

    Edge Enhancement

    Image Format

    Problem of DSP Correction Dependence Syndrome

    Three-Chip Color Camera System




    Takao Kuroda earned his bachelor, masters, and doctorate degrees from Osaka University, Japan. Throughout his illustrious career, he has held positions in the Panasonic Corporation’s Electronics Laboratory, Kyoto Research Laboratory, Elemental Technology Development Group, and Image Sensor Business Unit. He initially retired from Panasonic in December 2005, but at the company’s request, he accepted an advisory role to establish a technology strategy. In 2011, he retired completely to write the Japanese version of Essential Principles of Image Sensors. An ITE fellow, Dr. Kuroda holds 70 Japanese and 15 US patents. His research has contributed to numerous technological advancements around the world.

    "... covers the basic principles of image sensors from semiconductor devices to sensor physics to image processing fundamentals. Each new concept is presented in a clear manner and the text is elegant, with the author giving essential details and generous insights without adding excessive details. I highly recommend this publication to engineers and applied physicists. Although the subject matter is very technical, it would also be of interest to graduate students."
    —Professor Christian Brosseau, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France, from Optics & Photonics News, February 2015

    "The main strength of this book is the breadth of the covered material— from basic semiconductor device and sensor physics to specifics of various types of image sensors, image processing fundamentals, and imaging systems performance. Thus, this book is useful to anyone who wishes to learn the basics of various aspects of image sensors."
    —Maxim Ershov, Silicon Frontline Technology, Campbell, California, USA

    "… unmatched by any other book in describing techniques for building competitive CMOS image sensors. … fundamentally grounded in sampling theory."
    —Tobi Delbruck, Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Switzerland

    "… a good general resource for digital imaging technologists. … The author is clearly an expert in the field and has assembled a practical review of this technology."
    —Ray Fontaine, Chipworks, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada