Essential Principles of Image Sensors  book cover
1st Edition

Essential Principles of Image Sensors

ISBN 9781138074170
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
192 Pages 180 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Providing a succinct introduction to the systemization, noise sources, and signal processes of image sensor technology, Essential Principles of Image Sensors discusses image information and its four factors: space, light intensity, wavelength, and time. Featuring clarifying and insightful illustrations, this must-have text:

  • Explains how image sensors convert optical image information into image signals
  • Treats space, wavelength, and time as digitized built-in coordinate points in image sensors and systems
  • Details the operational principles, pixel technology, and evolution of CCD, MOS, and CMOS sensors with updated technology
  • Describes sampling theory, presenting unique figures demonstrating the importance of phase
  • Explores causes for the decline of image information quality

In a straightforward manner suitable for beginners and experts alike, Essential Principles of Image Sensors covers key topics related to digital imaging including semiconductor physics, component elements necessary for image sensors, silicon as a sensitive material, noises in sensors, and more.

Table of Contents

Preface to English Version

Preface to Japanese Version


Task of Imaging and Role of Image Sensors

Factors Constructing Image Information

Image Sensor Output and Structure of Image Signal

Monochrome Still Images

Color Still Images

Color Moving Images

Functional Elements of Image Sensors


Device Elements and Circuits for Image Sensors

Device Element Components

Foundation of Silicon Device Physics


MOS Structure

Buried MOS Structure



Buried Photodiode/Pinned Photodiode

Silicon as a Photosensitive Material

np Photodiode on p-Type Substrate

npn Photodiode on p-Well

Circuit Components

Floating Diffusion Amplifier

Source Follower Amplifier

Correlated Double Sampling Circuit


Major Types of Noise in Image Sensors

Amplitude of Noise

Circuitry Noise (kTC Noise)

Transistor Noise

1/f Noise

Thermal Noise

Random Telegraph Noise

Shot Noise

FDA Noise Reduction by CDS


Integration Period and Scanning Mode

Progressive Mode

Interlaced Mode

Electronic Shutter Mode

Types of Image Sensors

CCD Sensors

Principle of CCDs

Pixel Technology of IT-CCD

Vertical Overflow Drain Structure

Depleted Photodiode and Transfer Mechanism

Buried Photodiode/Pinned Photodiode

Progress of CCD Sensor

MOS Sensors

Principle of MOS Sensors

Pixel Technology of MOS Sensors

Progress in MOS Sensors

CMOS Sensors

Principle of CMOS Sensors

Pixel Technology of CMOS Sensors

Progress in CMOS Sensors

Noise Reduction Circuits in Analog Output Sensor

Digital Output Sensors

Sensitivity Improvement Technology

Lightguide (Lightpipe)

Backside Illuminated Sensors

Front Side Illuminated Sensor

Organic Sensors

Electronic Shutter

Electronic Shutter of CCD Sensors

Electronic Shutter of MOS and CMOS Sensors

Comparison of Situation and Prospects of Each Sensor Type


Impacts of Digitization by Built-In Coordinate Points on Image Information Quality

Sampling and Sampling Theorem

Sampling in Space Domain

Sampling in Time Domain

Sampling in Wavelength Domain and Color Information


Technologies to Improve Image Information Quality

Light Intensity Information


Dynamic Range

Space Information

Time Information

Frame-Based Sensors

Imaging Modes

Event-Driven Sensor

Color and Wavelength Information

Single-Chip Color Camera System

Multiband Camera System

Hyperspectral Imaging System


Imaging Systems

Deteriorating Elements of Image Information Quality

Signal Processing

Defect Correction, Brightness Correction

White Balance


Color Conversion

Color and Tone Matching

Noise Reduction

Edge Enhancement

Image Format

Problem of DSP Correction Dependence Syndrome

Three-Chip Color Camera System



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Takao Kuroda earned his bachelor, masters, and doctorate degrees from Osaka University, Japan. Throughout his illustrious career, he has held positions in the Panasonic Corporation’s Electronics Laboratory, Kyoto Research Laboratory, Elemental Technology Development Group, and Image Sensor Business Unit. He initially retired from Panasonic in December 2005, but at the company’s request, he accepted an advisory role to establish a technology strategy. In 2011, he retired completely to write the Japanese version of Essential Principles of Image Sensors. An ITE fellow, Dr. Kuroda holds 70 Japanese and 15 US patents. His research has contributed to numerous technological advancements around the world.


"... covers the basic principles of image sensors from semiconductor devices to sensor physics to image processing fundamentals. Each new concept is presented in a clear manner and the text is elegant, with the author giving essential details and generous insights without adding excessive details. I highly recommend this publication to engineers and applied physicists. Although the subject matter is very technical, it would also be of interest to graduate students."
—Professor Christian Brosseau, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France, from Optics & Photonics News, February 2015

"The main strength of this book is the breadth of the covered material— from basic semiconductor device and sensor physics to specifics of various types of image sensors, image processing fundamentals, and imaging systems performance. Thus, this book is useful to anyone who wishes to learn the basics of various aspects of image sensors."
—Maxim Ershov, Silicon Frontline Technology, Campbell, California, USA

"… unmatched by any other book in describing techniques for building competitive CMOS image sensors. … fundamentally grounded in sampling theory."
—Tobi Delbruck, Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Switzerland

"… a good general resource for digital imaging technologists. … The author is clearly an expert in the field and has assembled a practical review of this technology."
—Ray Fontaine, Chipworks, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada