Essentials of Human Physiology for Pharmacy: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Essentials of Human Physiology for Pharmacy

2nd Edition

By Laurie Kelly McCorry

Routledge

520 pages | 70 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2008-07-25
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Description

A firm grasp of the functions of living organisms is one of the most important prerequisites to pharmacy study. The long-awaited second edition of Essentials of Human Physiology presents concepts in physiology in a way that prepares students for their subsequent study of pathophysiology, pharmacology, and pharmacotherapeutics.

Thoroughly revised and updated, this text maintains the clarity of the first edition, yet provides important new information to give students a solid grounding in some of the most important aspects of pharmacy. As with the first edition, the book begins with an overview of the fundamental aspects of cell membrane physiology with particular emphasis on nerve cell function. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the two major regulatory systems in the body: the nervous system and the endocrine system.

The book then continues with in-depth presentations of the reproductive, muscular, cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, and renal systems. An important focus throughout the text is how tissue and organ function are regulated in order to maintain homeostasis.

New in This Edition:

· All 19 chapters updated and expanded

· Revised and additional subsections of pharmacy applications

· New sections on medical terms with pronunciations and definitions

· New chapters on the reproductive and immune systems

· Additional figures and tables to clarify information

.

This book was written by Laurie Kelly McCorry, a professor of physiology for eighteen years. Using simple, straightforward language, the text presents the science of physiology clearly so that undergraduate students will understand the relevance of these concepts as they relate to the practice of pharmacy. By studying and mastering the principles in this text, students will develop a secure foundation in human physiology so that they are better equipped to meet the challenges in their pharmacy career.

Table of Contents

PHYSIOLOGY AND THE CONCEPT OF HOMEOSTASIS

Study Objectives

Introduction

Homeostasis

Negative feedback

Positive feedback

Medical terminology

Bibliography

PLASMA MEMBRANE

Study objectives

Introduction

Structure and function of the plasma membrane

Membrane transport

Passive diffusion through the membrane

Osmosis

Mediated transport

Medical terminology

Bibliography

MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

Study objectives

Introduction

Development of the resting membrane potential

Medical terminology

Bibliography

ELECTRICAL SIGNALS

Study objectives

Introduction

Graded potentials

Action potentials

Conduction of the action potential

Medical terminology

Bibliography

SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION

Study objectives

Introduction

Chemical synapses

Summation

Interconnections between neurons

Factors affecting synaptic transmission

Altered release

Altered interaction of a neurotransmitter with

its receptor

Altered removal of a neurotransmitter from the

synaptic cleft

Replacement of a deficient neurotransmitter

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

Classes of neurons

Major levels of central nervous system (CNS) function

The brain

Cerebrum

Functional regions of the cerebral cortex

Basal ganglia

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Brainstem

Cerebellum

Glial cells

Blood–brain barrier

Cerebrospinal fluid

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE SPINAL CORD

Study objectives

Introduction

Functions of the spinal cord

Composition of the spinal cord

Gray matter

White matter

Ascending tracts

Descending tracts

Spinal reflexes

Withdrawal reflex

Crossed-extensor reflex

Medical terminology

Bibliography

PAIN

Study objectives

Introduction

Nociceptors

Fast pain and slow pain

Hyperalgesia

Neurotransmitters of the nociceptive afferent fibers

Pain pathway

Endogenous analgesic system

Gate control theory

Cutaneous pain

Deep somatic pain

Tissue ischemia

Muscle spasm

Visceral pain

Referred pain

Phantom pain

Pharmacologic treatment of pain

Nonnarcotic analgesics

Opioid analgesics

Adjuvant analgesics

Medical terminology

Bibliography

The AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

Regulation of autonomic nervous system activity

Efferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system

Divisions of the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic division

Parasympathetic division

Neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system

Termination of neurotransmitter activity

Receptors for autonomic neurotransmitters

Functions of the autonomic nervous system

Adrenal medulla

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

Biochemical classification of hormones

Transport of hormones

Hormone elimination

Functional classification of hormones

Hormone interactions

Mechanisms of hormone action

The pituitary gland

Relationship between the hypothalamus and the

pituitary gland

Negative feedback control of hormone release

Hormones of the neurohypophysis

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Oxytocin

Hormones of the adenohypophysis

Gonadotropins

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Prolactin (PRL)

Growth hormone (GH)

Thyroid gland

Thyroid hormones

Calcitonin

Parathyroid glands

Adrenal glands

Adrenal medulla

Adrenal cortex

Mineralocorticoids

Glucocorticoids

Adrenal androgens

Pancreas

Insulin

Glucagon

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

Gametogenesis

Spermatogenesis

Oogenesis

Male reproductive system

Testes

Epididymides

Vas deferens

Ejaculatory ducts

Penis

Prostate

Seminal vesicles

Bulbourethral glands

Testosterone

Female reproductive system

Ovaries

Fallopian tubes

Uterus

Vagina

Ovarian cycle

Follicular phase

Luteal phase

Hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle

Medical terminology

Bibliography

SKELETAL MUSCLE

Study objectives

Introduction

Muscle tension and movement

Isometric versus isotonic contraction

Structure of skeletal muscle

Sarcomeres

Thick filaments

Thin filaments

Neuromuscular junction

Mechanism of contraction

Sources of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for muscle contraction

Muscle fatigue

Oxygen debt

Types of muscle fibers

Muscle mechanics

Number of muscle fibers contracting

Amount of tension developed by each contracting

muscle fiber

Medical terminology

Bibliography

Smooth muscle

Study objectives

Introduction

Structure of smooth muscle

Calcium and the mechanism of contraction

Smooth muscle contraction is slow and prolonged

Types of smooth muscle

Factors influencing the contractile activity of smooth muscle

Length–tension relationship

Hyperplasia

Medical terminology

Bibliography

CARDIAC PHYSIOLOGY

Study objectives

Introduction

Functional anatomy of the heart

Myocardial wall

Electrical activity of the heart

Electrocardiogram

Cardiac cycle

Ventricular filling

Isovolumetric contraction

Ejection

Isovolumetric relaxation

Medical terminology

Bibliography

CARDIAC OUTPUT

Study objectives

Introduction

Control of heart rate

Control of stroke volume

Effect of exercise on cardiac output

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

The blood vessels

Blood pressure throughout the systemic circulation

Blood flow through a vessel

Regulation of arterial pressure

Autonomic nervous system

Vasomotor center

Baroreceptors

Chemoreceptors

Low-pressure receptors

Vasoactive substances

Vasoconstrictors

Vasodilators

Venous return

Blood volume

Sympathetic stimulation of the veins

Skeletal muscle activity

Respiratory activity

Effects of gravity on the circulatory system

Regulation of blood flow through tissues

Active hyperemia

Autoregulation

Effects of acute exercise on the circulatory system

Capillary exchange

Medical terminology

Bibliography

BLOOD AND HEMOSTASIS

Study objectives

Introduction

Plasma

Erythrocytes

Blood types

Leukocytes

Platelets

Hemostasis

Vascular constriction

Formation of a platelet plug

Blood coagulation

Positive feedback nature of clot formation

Clot dissolution

Prevention of blood clotting and platelet aggregation in

the normal vascular system

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

Agents of infectious disease

Effector cells of the immune system

Immune responses

Innate immune system

Inflammation

Defense by tissue macrophages

Localized vasodilation

Increased capillary permeability

Localized edema

Walling off of the inflamed area

Infiltration of phagocytes

Opsonization

Phagocytosis

Interferon

Natural killer cells

Complement system

Adaptive immune system

Antibody-mediated immunity

Classification of antibodies

Structure of antibodies

Actions of antibodies

Clonal selection theory

Primary versus secondary responses

Active versus passive immunity

Cell-mediated immunity

Types of T cells

Actions of T cells

MHC molecules

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

Blood–gas interface

Airways

Epithelium

Cartilage

The pleura

Mechanics of breathing

Thoracic volume

Inspiration

Expiration

Lung volume

Pulmonary pressures

Elastic behavior of the lungs

Interdependence

Airway resistance

Lung volume

Airway obstruction

Bronchial smooth muscle tone

Ventilation

Standard lung volumes

Total ventilation

Alveolar ventilation

Dead space

Diffusion

Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Ventilation–perfusion matching

Gas transport in the blood

Transport of oxygen

Factors affecting the transport of oxygen

Transport of carbon dioxide

Regulation of ventilation

Chemoreceptor response to decreased arterial PO

Chemoreceptor response to increased arterial PCO

Chemoreceptor response to increased arterial

hydrogen ion concentration

Ventilatory response to exercise

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

The digestive tract wall

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis externa

Serosa

Regulation of gastrointestinal function

Intrinsic nerve plexuses

Extrinsic autonomic nerves

Gastrointestinal hormones

Mouth

Pharynx

Esophagus

Stomach

Gastric motility

Gastric secretion

Liver

Gallbladder

Pancreas

Transport of bile and pancreatic juice to the small intestine

Small intestine

Motility of the small intestine

Digestion and absorption in the small intestine

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Lipids

Water and electrolytes

Large intestine

Motility of the large intestine

Secretion of the large intestine

Medical terminology

Bibliography

THE RENAL SYSTEM

Study objectives

Introduction

Functional anatomy of the kidneys

Vascular component

Tubular component

Basic renal processes

Glomerular filtration

Filtration barrier

Determinants of filtration

Tubular reabsorption

Sodium reabsorption

Chloride reabsorption

Water reabsorption

Production of urine of varying concentrations

Vasa recta

Tubular secretion

Potassium ion secretion

Hydrogen ion secretion

Plasma clearance

Renal blood flow

Autoregulation

Myogenic mechanism

Tubuloglomerular feedback

Resistance of the afferent arteriole

Sympathetic nerves

Angiotensin II

Prostaglandins

Control of sodium excretion: regulation of plasma volume

Control of water excretion: regulation of plasma osmolarity

Medical terminology

Bibliography

INDEX

About the Series

Pharmacy Education Series

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED005000
MEDICAL / Anatomy
MED071000
MEDICAL / Pharmacology
MED072000
MEDICAL / Pharmacy