Offering a format that is significantly different than that offered by other books, Ethical Health Care beings by asking what is meant by health and how it is achieved. The book then proceeds to explore with care and context the nature of the relationship between patients and clinicians, health care providers and the societies in which they inhabit, and finally the relationship between the health care enterprise and the international community. By emphasizing the ethical issues that arise in the broad quest to foster human health, and appreciating that health is not primarily a function of medical interventions, Ethical Health Care introduces students to problems such as the international distribution of pharmaceuticals and the dangers of reemerging infections. To a far greater extent than is done traditionally, Ethical Health Care provides an interdisciplinary perspective to bioethics, relying heavily upon the teachings of economics, law, and public health.
Table of Contents
1. Bioethics: Expanding our Horizon.
The Bioethical Perspective.
Questions of Justice.
The History of Public Health.
The Population Perspective.
2. The Building Blocks of Health.
What is Health?
Rene Dubois, Health and Creative Adaptation.
Daniel Callahan, The WHO Definition of Health.
What Makes Us Healthy?
Scot D. Yoder, Individual Responsibility for Health, Decision Not Discovery.
Geoffrey Rose, Sick Individuals and Sick Populations.
Ichiro Kawachi, Bruce Kennedy, Kimberly Lochner, Long Live Community: Social Capital as Public Health.
Finn Diderichsen, Timothy Evans, Margaret Whitehead, The Social Basis Of Disparities in Health.
The Economics of Health.
John K. Iglehart, The American Health Care System — Expenditures.
Wendy K. Mariner, Rationing Health Care and the Need for Credible Scarcity: Why Americans Can’t Say No.
3. The Health of Individuals.
What and Why Autonomy.
Gerald Dworkin, Autonomy and Informed Consent.
Leslie Blackhall, et al., Ethnicity and Attitudes Toward Patient Autonomy.
David J. Rothman, The Origins and Consequences of Patient Autonomy: A 25-Year Retrospective.
Shine v. Vega.
Bouvia v. Superior Court of Los Angeles County.
Garrett Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons.
Dan E. Beauchmp, Community: The Neglected Tradition of Public Health.
Individual Responsibility for the Health of Others.
Jacobson v. Massachusetts.
In re A.C.
Ferguson v. City of Charleston.
Amitai Etzioni, HIV Sufferers Have a Responsibility.
Ronald Bayer, AIDS Prevention–Sexual Ethics and Responsibility.
Norman Daniels, Filial Obligations and Justice.
The Implications of Autonomy.
Beverly Rockhill, The Privatization of Risk.
Gerald Dworkin, Taking Risks, Assessing Responsibility.
Eike-Henner Kluge, Drawing the Ethical Line Between Organ Transplantation and Lifestyle Abuse.
4. The Ethical Obligations of Health Care Providers.
The Ethical Obligation of Physicians and Other Providers.
The Hippocratic Oath.
Matthew Wynia et al., Medical Professionalism in Society.
Dena S. Davis, Nursing: An Ethic of Caring.
Helga Kuhse, Clinical Ethics and Nursing: “Yes” to Caring, But “No” to a Female Ethics of Care.
The Obligation of Physicians to Provide Quality Care.
Helling v. Carey.
Steven H. Miles, Sounding Board: Informed Demand for ‘Non-Beneficial’ Medical Treatment.
Marcia Angell, The Case of Helga Wanglie: A New Kind of ‘Right to Die’ Case.
Ezekiel J. Emanuel, What is the Great Benefit of Legalizing Euthanasia of Physician-Assisted Suicide?
Jerome E. Bickenbach, Disability and Life-Ending Decisions.
Washington v. Glucksberg.
The Obligation of Confidentiality.
Whalen v. Roe.
Roberta M. Berry, The Genetic Revolution and the Physician’s Duty of Confidentiality.
Amitai Etzioni, HIV Testing of Infants: Privacy and Public Health.
Helena Gail Rubenstein, If I Am Only for Myself, What Am I? A Communitarian Look at the Privacy Stalemate.
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California.
The Physician-Patient Relationship in the Era of Managed Care.
Patricia Illingworth, Bluffing, Puffing and Spinning in Managed Care Organizations.
Leonard M. Fleck, Justice, HMOs, and the Invisible Rationing of Health Care Resources.
Norman G. Levinsky, The Doctor’s Master.
John J. Paris and Stephen G. Post, Managed Care, Cost Control, and the Common Good.
5. The Ethical Obligations of Health Care Institutions.
The Ethical Obligations of Hospitals.
Darling v. Charleston Community Memorial Hospital.
Lucian L. Leape and Donald M. Berwick, Safe Health Care: Are We Up to It?
Utah County v. Intermountain Health Care, Inc.
The Ethical Obligation of Managed Care Organizations.
Wendy K. Mariner, Business v. Medical Ethics: Conflicting Standards For Managed Care.
E. Haavi Morreim, Moral Justice and Legal Justice in Managed Care: The Ascent of Contributive Justice.
Pergram v. Hedrich.
Vikram Khanna, et al., Disclosure of Operating Practices by Managed-Care Organizations to Consumers of Healthcare: Obligations of Informed Consent.
American Public Health Association, Supporting National Standards of Accountability for Access and Quality in Managed Healthcare.
The Ethical Obligations of Pharmaceutical Companies.
Baruch Brody, Balancing Technological Innovation with Social Well-Being.
Marcia Angell, The Pharmaceutical Industry: To Whom is it Accountable?
David Healy, Good Science or Good Business?
Robert A. Bell, et al., Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertising and the Public.
6. Individuals, Society, and Health.
The Obligations of the State.
World Health Organization, Constitution.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Norman Daniels, Justice, Fair Procedures, and the Goals of Medicine.
Richard A. Epstein, Practical Obstacles to Positive Rights.
Wendy E. Parmet, Health Care and the Constitution: Public Health and the Role of the State in the Framing Era.
Norman Daniels, et al., Justice is Good for Our Health.
Obligations to Other Societies.
Solomon R. Benatar, Global Disparities in Health and Human Rights: A Critical Commentary.
Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality.
David B. Resnick, Developing Drugs for the Developing World: An Economic, Legal, Moral, and Political Dilemma.
Jillian Clare Cohen and Patricia Illingworth, The Dilemma of Intellectual Property Rights for Pharmaceuticals: The Tension Between Ensuring Access of the Poor to Medicines and Committing to International Agreements.
Are Health Care Ethics Culturally Specific?
Godfrey B. Tangwa, Globalization or Westernization? Ethical Concerns in the Whole Bio-Business.
Rosemarie Tong, Towards a Feminist Global Bioethics: Addressing Women’s Health Concerns Worldwide.
Loretta M. Kopelman, Female Genital Circumcision and Conventionalist Ethical Relativism.
7. Individuals, Society, and Biomedical Science: Emerging and Reemerging Issues.
Human Subjects in Medical Research.
World Medical Association, Declaration of Helsinki.
Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute, Inc.
Marcia Angell, The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World.
Keymanthri Moodley, HIV Vaccine Trial Participation in South Africa–An Ethical Assessment.
Science and Society.
The President’s Council on Bioethics, Human Cloning and Human Dignity: An Ethical Inquiry.
Leon Kass, A Debate on Human Cloning: Why We Should Ban the Cloning of Human Beings.
Daniel Callahan, Too Much of a Good Thing: How Splendid Technologies Can Go Wrong.
Individuals, Society, Science and the Globe in an Era of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infections.
Lawrence O. Gostin, Public Health in an Age of Bioterrorism: Rethinking Individual Rights and Common Goods; In Defense of a Model Act to Bring Public Health Law into the Modern Age.
George J. Annas, Bioterrorism, Public Health, and Human Rights; Taking Human Rights Seriously is our Best Defense Against Bioterrorism and Fosters Both the Federalization and Globalization of Public Health.
Wendy E. Parmet, Bioterrorism: Public Health Perspectives.
Edward P. Richards, Bioterrorism and the Use of Fear in Public Health.
Jonathan M. Mann, Medicine and Public Health, Ethics and Human Rights.