1st Edition

Ethical IT Innovation A Value-Based System Design Approach

By Sarah Spiekermann Copyright 2016
    283 Pages 9 Color & 127 B/W Illustrations
    by Auerbach Publications

    Explaining how ubiquitous computing is rapidly changing our private and professional lives, Ethical IT Innovation: A Value-Based System Design Approach stands at the intersection of computer science, philosophy, and management and integrates theories and frameworks from all three domains.

    The book explores the latest thinking on computer ethics, including the normative ethical theories currently shaping the debate over the good and bad consequences of technology. It begins by making the case as to why IT professionals, managers, and engineers must consider the ethical issues when designing IT systems, and then uses a recognized system development process model as the structural baseline for subsequent chapters.

    For each system development phase, the author discusses: the ethical issues that must be considered, who must consider them, and how that thought process can be most productive. In this way, an ‘Ethical SDLC’ (System Development Life Cycle) is created.

    The book presents an extensive case study that applies the "Ethical SDLC" to the example of privacy protection in RFID enabled environments. It explains how privacy can be built into systems and illustrates how ethical decisions can be consciously made at each stage of development. The final chapter revisits the old debate of engineers’ ethical accountability as well as the role of management.

    Explaining the normative theories of computer ethics, the book explores the ethical accountability of developers as well as stakeholders. It also provides questions at the end of each chapter that examine the ethical dimensions of the various development activities.

    How This Book Frames Computer Ethics
    Ethical System Development Life Cycle (E-SDLC)
    Value-Based IT Design: A Positive Message for IT Markets
    Engineers, Managers, and "Ethical Machines"

    IT Innovation
    Human Growth and Eudemonia through IT
    Human Nightmares Caused by IT and a Short Reflection on Good and Bad
    End of IT Innovation Based on Functionality
    Questioning "Function Hypes"
    True Cost of Hype Cycles
    Post-Function Hype: Catering to Higher Human Values
    Values in IT Design
    Necessity for Value-Based Design
    Envisioning the Value of IT Services

    Future IT Environments: Five Scenarios
    Personas Used in the Scenarios
    Scenario 1: Future of Gaming
    Scenario 2: Future of Work
    Scenario 3: Future of Retail
    Scenario 4: Future of University Education
    Scenario 5: Future of Robotics
    IT Innovation Lying Ahead
    Positive Potential Outcomes of IT Innovation
    Negative Potential Outcomes of IT Innovation

    Value Ethics and IT
    An Introduction to Values
    What Is a Value?
    Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Values
    Intrinsic Values in Philosophy and Psychology

    Ethical Knowledge for Ethical IT Innovation
    What Is Knowledge?
    Ethical Challenges in IT-Driven Knowledge Creation
    Ethical Challenges in Data Collection
    Ethical Challenges in Information Aggregation and Knowledge Creation
    Ethical Challenges for Accessing Knowledge
    Ethical Uses of Information and Knowledge, a Privacy Issue
    Summing Up: Ethical Knowledge Management

    Preserving Freedom in Future IT Environments
    Negative Liberty and Machines
    Positive Liberty and Machines
    Technology Paternalism and Controllability
    Autonomy vis-à-vis Machines
    Attention-Sensitive Machines
    Summing Up: Freedom and Liberty in Future IT Environments

    Health and Strength in the Machine Age
    Direct Effect of Machines on Physical Health and Strength
    Long-Term Effects of Machines on Physical Health and Strength
    Direct Effects of Machines on Mental Health and Strength
    Indirect Effect of Machines on Mental Health
    Indirect Effect of Machines on Physical Health

    Safety, Security, and Privacy in Future IT Environments
    Safety versus Security
    Safety, Cyberwar, and Cybercrime
    Security Principles in Machine Engineering
    Privacy and Surveillance

    Trust in Future IT Environments
    What Is Trust?
    Distinguishing Trust from Confidence and Reliance
    Trust Mechanisms in Machines
    How Computer Scientists Understand Trust
    Reputation Systems

    Friendship in Future IT Environments
    What Is Philia (Friendship)?
    Machines as Mediator of Friendship
    Shared Life and Learning in Virtual Worlds
    Empathy in Virtual Worlds
    Intimacy and Disinhibition in Online Environments
    Intimacy with Artificial Beings
    Final Thoughts on Friendship in Future IT Environments

    Dignity and Respect in the Machine Age
    Dignity and Respect
    Respectful Machines
    Polite Machines
    Psychological Ownership in Future IT Environments
    Self-Esteem through Open and Free Software
    Influence of Patents and Copyrights on Human and Economic Growth
    Outlook on Human "Doing": Impact of Machines on Work

    Privacy and a Summary of the Value Fabric
    Privacy and Ethical Knowledge
    Privacy and Freedom
    Privacy Trade-Offs at All Levels of the Value Pyramid
    Summing Up: Values in Future IT Environments

    Ethical Value-Based IT System Design: An Overview
    Management View on New Product Development
    Engineering View on New IT Product Development
    Computer Ethics and IT System Design
    Value-Sensitive Design
    Stakeholder Involvement in Ethical IT System Design

    Value Discovery for IT Project Selection
    Envisioning with Cards
    Envisioning with Scenarios
    Critical Information Systems and Reflective Design

    Wise Leadership in the IT Project Selection Phase
    Why Should Leaders Care About the Ethical Design of IT?
    Why Many Executives Still Ignore Ethics
    Tough Decisions for Wise Leaders
    Utilitarian Reasoning
    What Makes a Wise Leader?
    Deontological Philosophical Reasoning
    Rawls’s Theory of Justice and the Veil of Ignorance
    Classical Virtue Ethics
    Ethical Decision Making in the IT Selection Phase
    Challenges for Leaders in the IT Selection Phase

    Ethical IT Planning
    Conceptual Value Analysis
    Feasibility Analysis

    Ethical IT System Analysis
    Context Analysis
    From Value Dams and Flows to Development Goals
    Analyzing Ethical Priorities for System Design
    Operationalizing Development Goals

    Ethical IT System Design
    Threat and Control Analysis
    Modeling and Understanding System Design Alternatives
    System Implementation

    Machine Ethics and Value-Based IT Design
    Explicit Ethical Agents
    Full Ethical Agents?




    Sarah Spiekermann

    "... a breakthrough volume; it will stand as essential reading and a primary reference in the further development of ethics and IT design, most especially as informed by virtue ethics approaches."
    —Professor Charles Ess, University of Oslo

    "A fascinating, remarkable journey about the importance of ethics in the design and application of modern information technologies. Deeply researched and engrossing—a book all innovators should read."
    —Professor Alessandro Acquisti, Carnegie Mellon University

    "Full of clear and compelling examples, this book is an excellent guide for students, professional engineers, and for managers who want to ensure ethics and values are among the concerns teams account for during design."
    — Professor Katie Shilton, University of Maryland

    "I will take this book with me to technical conferences and meetings, and also keep a copy on my desk, both to refer to and to find relevant works in the literature list. Ethical IT Innovation is an important book that will hopefully have an impact in academic discourse, and, possibly more importantly, in shaping our information systems in the future."
    —Bendert Zevenbergen, PhD student, Oxford University