Explaining how ubiquitous computing is rapidly changing our private and professional lives, Ethical IT Innovation: A Value-Based System Design Approach stands at the intersection of computer science, philosophy, and management and integrates theories and frameworks from all three domains.
The book explores the latest thinking on computer ethics, including the normative ethical theories currently shaping the debate over the good and bad consequences of technology. It begins by making the case as to why IT professionals, managers, and engineers must consider the ethical issues when designing IT systems, and then uses a recognized system development process model as the structural baseline for subsequent chapters.
For each system development phase, the author discusses: the ethical issues that must be considered, who must consider them, and how that thought process can be most productive. In this way, an ‘Ethical SDLC’ (System Development Life Cycle) is created.
The book presents an extensive case study that applies the "Ethical SDLC" to the example of privacy protection in RFID enabled environments. It explains how privacy can be built into systems and illustrates how ethical decisions can be consciously made at each stage of development. The final chapter revisits the old debate of engineers’ ethical accountability as well as the role of management.
Explaining the normative theories of computer ethics, the book explores the ethical accountability of developers as well as stakeholders. It also provides questions at the end of each chapter that examine the ethical dimensions of the various development activities.
Table of Contents
How This Book Frames Computer Ethics
Ethical System Development Life Cycle (E-SDLC)
Value-Based IT Design: A Positive Message for IT Markets
Engineers, Managers, and "Ethical Machines"
Human Growth and Eudemonia through IT
Human Nightmares Caused by IT and a Short Reflection on Good and Bad
End of IT Innovation Based on Functionality
Questioning "Function Hypes"
True Cost of Hype Cycles
Post-Function Hype: Catering to Higher Human Values
Values in IT Design
Necessity for Value-Based Design
Envisioning the Value of IT Services
Future IT Environments: Five Scenarios
Personas Used in the Scenarios
Scenario 1: Future of Gaming
Scenario 2: Future of Work
Scenario 3: Future of Retail
Scenario 4: Future of University Education
Scenario 5: Future of Robotics
IT Innovation Lying Ahead
Positive Potential Outcomes of IT Innovation
Negative Potential Outcomes of IT Innovation
Value Ethics and IT
An Introduction to Values
What Is a Value?
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Values
Intrinsic Values in Philosophy and Psychology
Ethical Knowledge for Ethical IT Innovation
What Is Knowledge?
Ethical Challenges in IT-Driven Knowledge Creation
Ethical Challenges in Data Collection
Ethical Challenges in Information Aggregation and Knowledge Creation
Ethical Challenges for Accessing Knowledge
Ethical Uses of Information and Knowledge, a Privacy Issue
Summing Up: Ethical Knowledge Management
Preserving Freedom in Future IT Environments
Negative Liberty and Machines
Positive Liberty and Machines
Technology Paternalism and Controllability
Autonomy vis-à-vis Machines
Summing Up: Freedom and Liberty in Future IT Environments
Health and Strength in the Machine Age
Direct Effect of Machines on Physical Health and Strength
Long-Term Effects of Machines on Physical Health and Strength
Direct Effects of Machines on Mental Health and Strength
Indirect Effect of Machines on Mental Health
Indirect Effect of Machines on Physical Health
Safety, Security, and Privacy in Future IT Environments
Safety versus Security
Safety, Cyberwar, and Cybercrime
Security Principles in Machine Engineering
Privacy and Surveillance
Trust in Future IT Environments
What Is Trust?
Distinguishing Trust from Confidence and Reliance
Trust Mechanisms in Machines
How Computer Scientists Understand Trust
Friendship in Future IT Environments
What Is Philia (Friendship)?
Machines as Mediator of Friendship
Shared Life and Learning in Virtual Worlds
Empathy in Virtual Worlds
Intimacy and Disinhibition in Online Environments
Intimacy with Artificial Beings
Final Thoughts on Friendship in Future IT Environments
Dignity and Respect in the Machine Age
Dignity and Respect
Psychological Ownership in Future IT Environments
Self-Esteem through Open and Free Software
Influence of Patents and Copyrights on Human and Economic Growth
Outlook on Human "Doing": Impact of Machines on Work
Privacy and a Summary of the Value Fabric
Privacy and Ethical Knowledge
Privacy and Freedom
Privacy Trade-Offs at All Levels of the Value Pyramid
Summing Up: Values in Future IT Environments
Ethical Value-Based IT System Design: An Overview
Management View on New Product Development
Engineering View on New IT Product Development
Computer Ethics and IT System Design
Stakeholder Involvement in Ethical IT System Design
Value Discovery for IT Project Selection
Envisioning with Cards
Envisioning with Scenarios
Critical Information Systems and Reflective Design
Wise Leadership in the IT Project Selection Phase
Why Should Leaders Care About the Ethical Design of IT?
Why Many Executives Still Ignore Ethics
Tough Decisions for Wise Leaders
What Makes a Wise Leader?
Deontological Philosophical Reasoning
Rawls’s Theory of Justice and the Veil of Ignorance
Classical Virtue Ethics
Ethical Decision Making in the IT Selection Phase
Challenges for Leaders in the IT Selection Phase
Ethical IT Planning
Conceptual Value Analysis
Ethical IT System Analysis
From Value Dams and Flows to Development Goals
Analyzing Ethical Priorities for System Design
Operationalizing Development Goals
Ethical IT System Design
Threat and Control Analysis
Modeling and Understanding System Design Alternatives
Machine Ethics and Value-Based IT Design
Explicit Ethical Agents
Full Ethical Agents?
"... a breakthrough volume; it will stand as essential reading and a primary reference in the further development of ethics and IT design, most especially as informed by virtue ethics approaches."
—Professor Charles Ess, University of Oslo
"A fascinating, remarkable journey about the importance of ethics in the design and application of modern information technologies. Deeply researched and engrossing—a book all innovators should read."
—Professor Alessandro Acquisti, Carnegie Mellon University
"Full of clear and compelling examples, this book is an excellent guide for students, professional engineers, and for managers who want to ensure ethics and values are among the concerns teams account for during design."
— Professor Katie Shilton, University of Maryland
"I will take this book with me to technical conferences and meetings, and also keep a copy on my desk, both to refer to and to find relevant works in the literature list. Ethical IT Innovation is an important book that will hopefully have an impact in academic discourse, and, possibly more importantly, in shaping our information systems in the future."
—Bendert Zevenbergen, PhD student, Oxford University