This book treats the issue of national diversity of Soviet military manpower that affects the morale, effectiveness, and reliability of the Soviet armed forces. It explores the historical dimensions of military multinationalism with respect to the Russian and Soviet military establishments.
1. Introduction Part 1: Managing the Ethnic Factor in the Russian and Soviet Armed Forces: A Historical Overview 1. Ethnic Recruitment in the Russian Empire 2. Participation of National Minorities in the Civil War 3. The Interwar Period 4. World War II 5. After World War II 6. Conclusions Part 2: Soviet Nationalities in German Wartime Strategy, 1941–1945 7. German War Objectives and Soviet Nationalities 8. German Occupation Policies and the Nationalities 9. Nationalities Under Arms 10. Conclusions Part 3: The Ethnic Factor in the Soviet Armed Forces 11. Managing the Ethnic Factor in Military Recruitment 12. General Stationing Guidelines and Practices 13. Ethnic Composition of Conscripts, Noncommissioned Officers, and the Officer Corps 14. Education and Training 15. Language 16. Interethnic Relations 17. Conclusions Part 4: Soviet Demographic Trends and the Ethnic Composition of Draft-Age Males, 1980–1995 18. Soviet Demographic Trends, 1959–1979 19. Population by Major Ethnic Groups 20. Projections of Population and Draft-Age Males to 1995, by Ethnic Group 21. Implications of the Results 21.1. Appendix: Estimating Equations Part 5: Soviet Muslim Soldiers in Afghanistan 22. Early Deployments 23. The Post-Invasion Period 24. Factors Affecting Muslim Soldiers' Attitudes and Performance