1st Edition

Ethnic Minorities in Modern China

Edited By Colin Mackerras
    1760 Pages
    by Routledge

    China is the world’s most populous country with fifty-five state-recognized ethnic minorities: approximately 123 million people, taking up over 60 per cent of China’s territory. And, while China’s dizzying growth has made it a major world force, both economically and strategically, one of the chief concerns of the rising Chinese state—not new, but gaining an ever higher priority—is to remain united and become better integrated. Yet over the past decade, ethnic tensions appear to have grown sharper among some minorities. Rioting in the Tibetan areas in March 2008 and in the Xinjiang capital of Urumqi in July 2009 have shown the volatility of ethnic relations in those particular areas and underscore the urgent need for a greater understanding of the situation.

    This new Routledge Major Work collection addresses that need. It answers theoretical questions relating to China’s ethnic minorities, detailing the individual separatist movements, and providing the historical background, as well as the politics and policy, economic, social, religious, and educational causes to some of the problems facing China today.

    Volume I

    Part 1: Theoretical and Identity Questions Relating to China’s Ethnic Minorities

    1. Baogang He, ‘Confucianism Versus Liberalism Over Minority Rights: A Critical Response to Will Kymlicka’, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 2004, 31, 1, 103–23.

    Identification and Identity

    2. Hsiao-tung Fei (trans. Wang Huimin and Wu Zenfang), ‘Ethnic Identification in China’, Social Sciences in China, 1980, 1, 1, 94–107.

    3. Colin Mackerras, ‘Some Major Issues in Ethnic Classification’, China Information, 2004, 18, 2, 303–13.

    4. Dru C. Gladney, ‘Representing Nationality in China: Refiguring Majority/Minority Identities’, Journal of Asian Studies, 1994, 53, 1, 92–123.

    5. Jonathan Unger, ‘Not Quite Han: The Ethnic Minorities of China’s Southwest’, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 1997, 29, 3, 67–78.

    6. William Jankowiak, ‘Ethnicity and Chinese Identity: Ethnographic Insight and Political Positioning’, in Kam Louie (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Modern Chinese Culture (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 91–114.

    7. Stevan Harrell and Li Yongxiang, ‘The History of the History of the Yi, Part II’, Modern China, 2003, 29, 3, 362–96.

    8. David Y. H. Wu, ‘Chinese Minority Policy and the Meaning of Minority Culture: The Example of the Bai in Yunnan, China’, Human Organization, 1990, 49, 1, 1–13.

    Part 2: Historical Background

    9. George Moseley, ‘The Frontier Regions in China’s Recent International Politics’, in Jack Gray (ed.), Modern China’s Search for a Political Form (Oxford University Press, 1969), pp. 299–329.

    10. Henry G. Schwarz, ‘The Treatment of Minorities’, in Michel Oksenberg (ed.), China’s Developmental Experience (Praeger Publishers, 1973), pp. 193–207.

    11. June Dreyer, ‘China’s Minority Nationalities in the Cultural Revolution’, China Quarterly, 1968, 35, 96–109.

    12. Barry Sautman, ‘Tibet’s Putative Statehood and International Law’, Chinese Journal of International Law, 2010, 9, 127–42.

    13. James D. Seymour, ‘Xinjiang’s Production and Construction Corps, and the Sinification of Eastern Turkestan’, Inner Asia, 2000, 2, 171–93.

    Part 3: Politics and Policy

    14. Yash Ghai, ‘Autonomy Regimes in China: Coping with Ethnic and Economic Diversity’, in Yash Ghai (ed.), Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-Ethnic States (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 77–98.

    15. Rong Ma, ‘A New Perspective in Guiding Ethnic Relations in the Twenty-first Century: "De-politicization" of Ethnicity in China’, Asian Ethnicity, 2007, 8, 3, 199–217.

    16. Barry Sautman, ‘Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China: The Case of Xinjiang’, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 1998, 4, 1/2, 86–118.

    17. Xiaowei Zang, ‘Ethnic Representation in the Current Chinese Leadership’, China Quarterly, 1998, 153, 107–27.

    18. Yasheng Huang, ‘China’s Cadre Transfer Policy toward Tibet in the 1980s’, Modern China, 1995, 21, 2, 184–204.

    19. Katherine Palmer Kaup, ‘Regionalism versus Ethnicnationalism in the People’s Republic of China’, China Quarterly, 2002, 172, 863–84.

    20. Wang Lixiong, ‘A True "Middle-Way" Solution to Tibetan Unrest’, China Security, 2008, 4, 2, 27–37.

    21. Barry Sautman, ‘Is Xinjiang an Internal Colony?’, Inner Asia, 2000, 2, 239–71.

    Resistance of Particular Ethnic Minorities

    22. Robert Barnett, ‘The Tibet Protests of Spring, 2008: Conflict Between the Nation and the State’, China Perspectives, 2009, 3, 6–23.

    23. Gardner Bovingdon, ‘The Not-So-Silent Majority: Uyghur Resistance to Han Rule in Xinjiang’, Modern China, 2002, 28, 1, 39–78.

    24. Uradyn E. Bulag, ‘Ethnic Resistance with Socialist Characteristics’, in Elizabeth J. Perry and Mark Selden (eds.), China Society, Change, Conflict and Resistance (Routledge, 2000), pp. 178–97.

    Volume II

    Part 4: Economics and Economic Development

    25. Colin Mackerras, ‘The Impact of Economic Reform on China's Minority Nationalities’, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 1998, 3, 1, 61–79.

    26. Bjorn Gustafsson and Li Shi, ‘The Ethnic Minority-Majority Income Gap in Rural China During Transition’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2003, 51, 4, 805–22.

    27. June Teufel Dreyer, ‘Economic Development in Tibet under the People's Republic of China’, Journal of Contemporary China, 2003, 12, 36, 411–30.

    28. Melvyn C. Goldstein and Cynthia M. Beall, ‘The Impact of China’s Reform Policy on the Nomads of Western Tibet’, Asian Survey, 1989, 29, 6, 619–41.

    29. Shiyong Wang, ‘Policy Impact on Tibetan Market Participation’, Asian Ethnicity, 2009, 10, 1, 1–18.

    30. June Teufel Dreyer, ‘Ethnicity and Economic Development in Xinjiang’, Inner Asia, 2000, 2, 137–54.

    31. Beller-Hann, Ildiko, ‘Crafts, Entrepreneurship and Gendered Economic Relations in Southern Xinjiang in the Era of "Socialist Commodity Economy"’, Central Asian Survey, 1998, 17, 4, 701–18.

    32. David S. G. Goodman, ‘Qinghai and the Emergence of the West: Nationalities, Communal Interaction and National Integration’, China Quarterly, 2004, 178, 379–99.

    33. Nicolas Becquelin, ‘Staged Development in Xinjiang’, China Quarterly, 2004, 178, 358–78.

    34. Dru Gladney, ‘Economy and Ethnicity: The Revitalization of a Muslim Minority in Southeastern China’, in Andrew G. Walder (ed.), The Waning of the Communist State, Economic Origins of Political Decline in China and Hungary (University of California Press, 1995), pp. 242–66.

    35. Thomas Heberer, ‘Ethnic Entrepreneurship and Ethnic Identity: A Case Study Among the Liangshan Yi (Nuosu) in China’, China Quarterly, 2005, 182, 407–27.

    36. Lian Bai, ‘Identity Reproducers Beyond the Grassroots: The Middle Class in the Manchu Revival since the 1980s’, Asian Ethnicity, 2005, 6, 3, 183–201.


    37. Mary L. Cingcade, ‘Tourism and the Many Tibets: The Manufacture of Tibetan "Tradition"’, China Information, 1998, 13, 1, 1–24.

    38. Ashild Kolas, ‘Tourism and the Making of Place in Shangri-La’, Tourism Geographies, 2004, 6, 3, 262–78.

    39. Ben Hillman, ‘Paradise Under Construction: Minorities, Myths and Modernity in Northwest Yunnan’, Asian Ethnicity, 2003, 4, 2, 175–88.

    40. Bai Zhihong, ‘Ethnic Identities under the Tourist Gaze’, Asian Ethnicity, 2007, 8, 3, 245–59.

    41. Sandra Teresa Hyde, ‘Sex Tourism Practices on the Periphery: Eroticizing Ethnicity and Pathologizing Sex on the Lancang’, in Nancy N. Chen et al. (eds.), China Urban Ethnographies of Contemporary Culture (Duke University Press, 2001), pp. 143–62.

    42. Siobhan M. Mattison, ‘Economic Impacts of Tourism and Erosion of the Visiting System Among the Mosuo of Lugu Lake’, Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 2010, 11, 2, 159–76.

    Volume III

    Part 5: Society and Social Features

    Gender and Family

    43. Ben Hillman and Lee-Anne Henfry, ‘Macho Minority: Masculinity and Ethnicity on the Edge of Tibet’, Modern China, 2006, 32, 2, 251–72.

    44. Susette Cooke, ‘"To Struggle for Freedom is Our Responsibility": Tibetan Nuns in the Chinese State’, in Maja Mikula (ed.), Women, Activism and Social Change (Routledge, 2005), pp. 117–35.

    45. Yan Ruxian (trans. Xing Wenjun), ‘A Living Fossil of the Family: A Study of the Family Structure of the Naxi Nationality in the Lugu Lake Region’, Social Science in China: A Quarterly Journal, 1982, 3, 4, 60–83.

    46. Christine Mathieu, ‘History and other Metaphors in Chinese-Mosuo Relations Since 1956’, in Antonia Finnane and Anne McLaren (eds.), Dress, Sex and Text in Chinese Culture (Monash Asia Institute, 1999), pp. 81–105.

    47. Zang Xiaowei, ‘Hui Muslim-Han Chinese Differences in Perceptions on Endogamy in Urban China’, Asian Ethnicity, 2005, 6, 1, 51–68.

    48. Wei Xing, ‘Prevalence of Ethnic Intermarriage in Kunming: Social Exchange or Insignificance of Ethnicity?’, Asian Ethnicity, 2007, 8, 2, 165–79.

    Ethnic Relations

    49. Herbert S. Yee, ‘Ethnic Relations in Xinjiang: A Survey of Uygur-Han Relations in Urumqi’, Journal of Contemporary China, 2003, 12, 36, 431–52.

    50. Zang Xiaowei, ‘Ethnic Differences in Neighbourly Relations in Urban China’, Asian Ethnicity, 2007, 7, 2, 195–207.

    51. Keng-Fong Pang, ‘Unforgiven and Remembered: The Impact of Ethnic Conflicts in Everyday Muslim-Han Social Relations on Hainan Island’, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 1998, 4, 1/2, 142–62.

    52. Joanne N. Smith, ‘"Making Culture Matter": Symbolic, Spatial and Social Boundaries between Uyghurs and Han Chinese’, Asian Ethnicity, 2002, 3, 2, 153–74.

    Part 6: Influences on the Mind: Religion and Education


    53. Justin Ben-Adam, ‘China’, in David Westerlund and Ingvar Svanberg (eds.), Islam Outside the Arab World (Curzon, 1999), pp. 190–211.

    54. Dru C.Gladney, ‘Islam in China: Accommodation or Separatism?’, China Quarterly, 2003, 173, 451–67.

    55. Maria Jaschok and Hau Ming Vicky Chan, ‘Education, Gender and Islam in China: The Place of Religious Education in Challenging and Sustaining "Undisputed Traditions" Among Chinese Muslim Women’, International Journal of Educational Development, 2009, 29, 5, 487–94.

    56. Dru C. Gladney, ‘Salman Rushdie in China: Religion, Ethnicity, and State Definition in the People’s Republic’, in Charles F. Keyes, Laurel Kendall, and Helen Hardacre (eds.), Asian Visions of Authority, Religion and the Modern States of East and Southeast Asia (University of Hawaii Press, 1994), pp. 255–78.

    57. I. Bellér-Hann, ‘"Making the Oil Fragrant": Dealings with the Supernatural among the Uyghurs in Xinjiang’, Asian Ethnicity, 2001, 2, 1, 9–23.

    58. Ben Hillman, ‘Monastic Politics and the Local State in China: Authority and Autonomy in an Ethnically Tibetan Prefecture’, China Journal, 2005, 54, 29–51.

    59. Chih-yu Shih, ‘Ethnicity as Policy Expedience: Clan Confucianism in Ethnic Tujia-Miao Yongshun’, Asian Ethnicity, 2001, 2, 1, 73–88.


    60. Gerard A. Postiglione, ‘The Implications of Modernization for the Education of China’s National Minorities’, in Ruth Hayhoe (ed.), Education and Modernization: The Chinese Experience (Pergamon Press, 1992), pp. 307–36.

    61. Xing Teng and Xiaoyi Ma, ‘Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities and Educational Equality in Higher Education in China’, in Minglang Zhou and Ann Maxwell Hill (eds.), Affirmative Action in China and the U.S., A Dialogue on Inequality and Minority Education (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 83–98.

    62. Lin Yi, ‘Ethnicization through Schooling: The Mainstream Discursive Repertoires of Ethnic Minorities’, China Quarterly, 2007, 192, 933–48.

    63. Naran Bilik, ‘Language Education, Intellectuals and Symbolic Representation: Being an Urban Mongolian in a New Configuration of Social Evolution’, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 1998, 4, 1/2, 47–67.

    64. Gerard A. Postiglione, ‘Making Tibetans in China: The Educational Challenges of Harmonious Multiculturalism’, Educational Review, 2008, 60, 1, 1–20.

    65. Haibo Yu, ‘Identity and Schooling Among the Naxi’, Asian Ethnicity, 2007, 8, 3, 235–44.

    Volume IV

    Part 7: China’s Minorities: Separatism; Implications for International Relations

    66. Susan McCarthy, ‘Ethno-Religious Mobilisation and Citizenship Discourse in the People’s Republic of China’, Asian Ethnicity, 2000, 1, 2, 107–16.

    The Tibetan Areas

    67. Misra, Amalendu, ‘Tibet: In Search of a Resolution’, Central Asian Survey, 2000, 19, 1, 79–93.

    68. Dawa Norbu, ‘China’s Dialogue with the Dalai Lama 1978–90: Prenegotiation Stage or Dead End?’, Pacific Affairs, 1991, 64, 3, 351–72.

    69. Baogang He and Barry Sautman, ‘The Politics of the Dalai Lama’s New Initiative for Autonomy’, Pacific Affairs, 2005–6, 78, 4, 601–29.

    70. Barry Sautman, ‘Colonialism, Genocide, and Tibet’, Asian Ethnicity, 2006, 7, 3, 243–65.


    71. Donald H. McMillen, ‘China, Xinjiang and Central Asia, "Glocality" in the Year 2008’, in Colin Mackerras and Michael Clarke (eds.), China, Xinjiang and Central Asia, History, Transition and Crossborder Interaction into the 21st Century (Routledge, 2009), pp. 1–20.

    72. Lillian Craig Harris, ‘Central Asia and the Implications for China's Policy in the Islamic World’, China Quarterly, 1993, 133, 111–29.

    73. M. Dillon, ‘Central Asia: The View from Beijing, Urumqi and Kashgar’, in Mehdi Mozaffari (ed.), Security Politics in the Commonwealth of Independent States, The Southern Belt (Macmillan, 1997), pp. 133–48.

    74. Michael Clarke, ‘Xinjiang and China’s Relations with Central Asia, 1991–2001: Across the "Domestic-Foreign Frontier"?’, Asian Ethnicity, 2003, 4, 2, 207–24.

    75. Nicolas Becquelin, ‘Xinjiang in the Nineties’, China Journal, 2000, 44, 65–90.

    Part 8: Overview Accounts of China’s Ethnic Minorities

    76. Katherine Palmer, ‘China’s Nationalities and Nationality Areas’, in Christopher Hudson (ed.), The China Handbook (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997), pp. 276–85.

    77. Colin Mackerras, ‘Ethnic Minorities’, in Czeslaw Tubilewicz (ed.), Critical Issues in Contemporary China (Routledge, 2006), pp. 167–92.