Since their inception, the European Communities and, later, the European Union (EU), have undergone significant changes, some of which have proved to be controversial, demonstrating the policy differences between those believing in ever closer political and economic union and those who favour a trade agreement only. The EU’s ultimate aims have been raised and discussed many times during its history, and the referendum held in June 2016 in the United Kingdom, at which a slim majority voted to leave the EU, may prove to mark a watershed in the organization’s continuing development. This series aims to analyse the EU’s previous and possible future reforms, the negotiations and renegotiations that have significantly affected and changed the organization, and the reshaping of the EU in the aftermath of the eurozone crisis and the Brexit referendum.
Julie Smith is Director of the European Centre, POLIS Department, Cambridge University, and Fellow of Robinson College, Cambridge. She is also a member of the United Kingdom House of Lords.
By Julie Smith
April 30, 2018
This Routledge Focus aims to investigate and analyse the United Kingdom’s relationship with the European Communities (EC) and the European Union (EU). Since joining the EC in 1973, the UK has had a fraught relationship with the organization, declining closer economic union in the eurozone and, ...