This book, first published in 1981, examines the issues inspiring working-class movements after 1848 in France, Germany and Britain, with some consideration also of Austria, Italy, Spain and Russia. It concentrates on the attitudes of the ordinary working men, rather than the ideologies and the leaders, and considers the many different forms and manifestations of their grievances and means of expression. What emerges is the complexity of the connection between economic circumstances and protest, and the existence of wide divergences of behaviour amongst the European working class.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2. The Emergence of Organised Protest 3. Maturation and Organisation, 1890-1914 4. War, Revolution and the Rise of Communism 5. Conclusion