Experimental Design: From User Studies to Psychophysics, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Experimental Design

From User Studies to Psychophysics, 1st Edition

By Douglas W. Cunningham, Christian Wallraven

A K Peters/CRC Press

408 pages

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Description

As computers proliferate and as the field of computer graphics matures, it has become increasingly important for computer scientists to understand how users perceive and interpret computer graphics. Experimental Design: From User Studies to Psychophysics is an accessible introduction to psychological experiments and experimental design, covering the major components in the design, execution, and analysis of perceptual studies.

The book begins with an introduction to the concepts central to designing and understanding experiments, including developing a research question, setting conditions and controls, and balancing specificity with generality. The book then explores in detail a number of types of experimental tasks: free description, rating scales, forced-choice, specialized multiple choice, and real-world tasks as well as physiological studies. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each type and provides examples of that type of experiment from the authors’ own work. The book also covers stimulus-related issues, including popular stimulus resources. It concludes with a thorough examination of statistical techniques for analyzing results, including methods specific to individual tasks.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

What Is an Experiment?

The Research Question

The Relationship between Hypothesis and Task

The Experiment

How to Use This Book

Designing an Experiment

Specificity versus Generality

The Elements of an Experiment

RESPONSE MEASURES

The Task

Task Taxonomy

Which Method Should I Use to Answer My Question?

Naive Participants

Ethics Review

General Guidelines

Summary

Free Description

Overview of Free-Description Tasks

Task Description

Specific Variants

Conclusions

Rating Scales

Overview of Rating Tasks

Task Description

Specific Variants

Conclusions

Forced Choice

Overview of Forced-Choice Tasks

Task Description

Specific Variants

Conclusions

Specialized Multiple Choice

Overview of Specialized Multiple-Choice Tasks

Task Description

Specific Variants

Conclusions

Real-World Tasks

Overview of Real-World Tasks

Task Description

Specific Variants

Conclusions

Physiology

Psychophysiological Measurements

Eye Tracking

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

STIMULI

Choosing Stimuli

Control

Stimulus Databases

Presenting Stimuli: The Psychtoolbox

History

Contents

Getting Started

Example 1: A Simple Experiment

Example 2: A More Involved Experiment

DATA ANALYSIS

Statistical Issues

Variables

Distributions

Descriptive versus Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Hypothesis Testing

Common Statistical Tests

Free Description, Questionnaires, and Rating Scales

Analysis of Free-Description Data

Rater Agreement and Rater Reliability

Analysis of Semantic Differentials, Similarity Ratings, and Multiple Scales

Force and Multiple Choice

Signal Detection Theory

Receiver Operator Characteristic

Measuring Sensitivity Using d’

Psychometric Functions

Bibliography

About the Authors

Cunningham, Douglas W.; Wallraven, Christian

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COM012000
COMPUTERS / Computer Graphics
COM012040
COMPUTERS / Programming / Games
MAT029000
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General
TEC017000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety