From User Studies to Psychophysics
As computers proliferate and as the field of computer graphics matures, it has become increasingly important for computer scientists to understand how users perceive and interpret computer graphics. Experimental Design: From User Studies to Psychophysics is an accessible introduction to psychological experiments and experimental design, covering the major components in the design, execution, and analysis of perceptual studies.
The book begins with an introduction to the concepts central to designing and understanding experiments, including developing a research question, setting conditions and controls, and balancing specificity with generality. The book then explores in detail a number of types of experimental tasks: free description, rating scales, forced-choice, specialized multiple choice, and real-world tasks as well as physiological studies. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each type and provides examples of that type of experiment from the authors’ own work. The book also covers stimulus-related issues, including popular stimulus resources. It concludes with a thorough examination of statistical techniques for analyzing results, including methods specific to individual tasks.
Table of Contents
What Is an Experiment?
The Research Question
The Relationship between Hypothesis and Task
How to Use This Book
Designing an Experiment
Specificity versus Generality
The Elements of an Experiment
Which Method Should I Use to Answer My Question?
Overview of Free-Description Tasks
Overview of Rating Tasks
Overview of Forced-Choice Tasks
Specialized Multiple Choice
Overview of Specialized Multiple-Choice Tasks
Overview of Real-World Tasks
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
Presenting Stimuli: The Psychtoolbox
Example 1: A Simple Experiment
Example 2: A More Involved Experiment
Descriptive versus Inferential Statistics
Common Statistical Tests
Free Description, Questionnaires, and Rating Scales
Analysis of Free-Description Data
Rater Agreement and Rater Reliability
Analysis of Semantic Differentials, Similarity Ratings, and Multiple Scales
Force and Multiple Choice
Signal Detection Theory
Receiver Operator Characteristic
Measuring Sensitivity Using d’
Cunningham, Douglas W.; Wallraven, Christian