Experimental Techniques in Materials and Mechanics  book cover
1st Edition

Experimental Techniques in Materials and Mechanics

ISBN 9781439819043
Published June 27, 2011 by CRC Press
468 Pages 229 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Experimental Techniques in Materials and Mechanics provides a detailed yet easy-to-follow treatment of various techniques useful for characterizing the structure and mechanical properties of materials. With an emphasis on techniques most commonly used in laboratories, the book enables students to understand practical aspects of the methods and derive the maximum possible information from the experimental results obtained.

The text focuses on crystal structure determination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, phase diagrams and heat treatment, and different types of mechanical testing methods. Each chapter follows a similar format:

  1. Discusses the importance of each technique
  2. Presents the necessary theoretical and background details
  3. Clarifies concepts with numerous worked-out examples
  4. Provides a detailed description of the experiment to be conducted and how the data could be tabulated and interpreted
  5. Includes a large number of illustrations, figures, and micrographs
  6. Contains a wealth of exercises and references for further reading

Bridging the gap between lecture and lab, this text gives students hands-on experience using mechanical engineering and materials science/engineering techniques for determining the structure and properties of materials. After completing the book, students will be able to confidently perform experiments in the lab and extract valuable data from the experimental results.

Table of Contents

Materials Science and Engineering
Outline of the Book

X-Ray Diffraction
Crystal Structure
Production of X-Rays
Absorption of X-Rays
The Bragg Equation
Diffraction Angles
Intensities of Diffracted Beams
XRD Equipment
Examination of a Typical XRD Pattern
Crystal Structure Determination
Indexing the XRD Pattern
Differentiation between SC and BCC Lattices
Comparison with Electron and Neutron Diffraction
Experimental Procedure

Optical Microscopy
Principle of the Optical Microscope
Components of the Microscope
Microscopic Observation
Information Derivable from the Microstructure
Specimen Preparation for Microscopic Examination
Some Typical Microstructures
Experimental Procedure

Scanning Electron Microscopy
Basic Design of the SEM
Electron Source
Electron Beam–Specimen Interactions
Specimen Preparation
Experimental Procedure

The Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram and Microstructures of Steels
Phase Diagrams
Representation of Phase Diagrams
The Phase Rule
Application of the Phase Rule
Derivation of Lever Rule
The Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram
Cooling Behavior and Microstructural Development
Differentiation between Proeutectoid Ferrite and Proeutectoid Cementite
Microstructural Observation
Experimental Procedure

Heat Treatment of Steels
Reaction Rates
Isothermal Transformation Diagrams
Transformation Products
Retained Austenite
Isothermal Treatments
Effect of Alloying Elements on the T–T–T Diagram
Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams
Types of Heat Treatment
Temper Embrittlement
Properties of Heat-Treated Steels
Experimental Procedure

Hardenability of Steels
Definition of Hardenability
Distribution of Hardness
Severity of Quench
The Grossmann Test
The Jominy End-Quench Test
Parameters Affecting Hardenability
Jominy Tests and Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams
Hardness Tester to be Used
Jominy Test for Nonferrous Alloys
Some Comments
Experimental Procedure
Additional Experiment

Hardness Testing
Types of Hardness Measurements
Scratch Hardness Measurement
Rebound Hardness Measurement
The Durometer Test
Indentation Hardness Measurement
Brinell Hardness Testing
Rockwell Hardness Testing
Vickers Hardness Testing
Microhardness Testing
Nanoindentation Testing
General Observations
Experimental Procedure
Additional Experiments

Tensile Testing
Measurement of Strength
Basic Definitions
Deformation Behavior
The Tensile Test
Properties Obtained from the Tensile Test
True Stress versus True Strain Curve
General Observations
Influence of Variables on Tensile Properties
Experimental Procedure
Additional Experiment

Impact Testing
Impact-Testing Techniques
Ductile–Brittle Transition
Determination of Ductile–Brittle Transition Temperature
Effect of Variables on Impact Energy
Correlations with Other Mechanical Properties
DBTT in Nonmetallic Materials
Experimental Procedure

Fatigue Testing
Fatigue Testing
Some Typical Examples of Fatigue Failure
Fatigue Failure Mechanism
Factors Affecting the Fatigue Strength of Materials
Fracture Mechanics Approach
Correlations between Fatigue Strength and Other Mechanical Properties
Experimental Procedure
Additional Experiments

Creep Testing
The Creep Test
The Creep Curve
Effect of Stress and Temperature
Creep-Rupture Test
Creep Resistance Criteria
Larson–Miller Parameter
Creep in Ceramic Materials
Creep in Polymeric Materials
Experimental Procedure


Exercises and Further Reading appear at the end of each chapter.

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C. Suryanarayana is a professor of materials science and engineering in the Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Central Florida. Dr. Suryanarayana is a fellow of ASM International and the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (UK). He has published over 330 technical papers and according to Thomson Reuters, is one of the top 40 materials scientists with the highest citation impact scores for papers published since 2000. His research focuses on rapid solidification processing, mechanical alloying, innovative synthesis/processing techniques, metallic glasses, superconductivity, quasicrystals, and nanostructured materials.


This book covers the main characterization tools for materials mechanics, phase analysis by x-ray diffraction and microstructure analysis in a comprehensive and exhaustive way. In addition, steel is presented as a practical example, covering phase transitions and common heat treatments. [It is] easy to read and understand for a beginner’s level, including examples and questions for practicing and control.
—Thomas Klassen, Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg, Germany

... beneficial for undergraduate students in developing their concepts related to the experimental techniques in materials and mechanics.
—Soon-Jik Hong, Kongju National University