432 pages | 154 B/W Illus.
Eye tracking in second language acquisition and bilingualism provides foundational knowledge and hands-on advice for designing, conducting, and analyzing eye-tracking research in applied linguistics. Godfroid’s research synthesis and methodological guide introduces the reader to fundamental facts about eye movements, eye-tracking paradigms for language scientists, data analysis, and the practicalities of building a lab. This indispensable book will appeal to undergraduate students learning principles of experimental design, graduate students developing their theoretical and statistical repertoires, experienced scholars looking to expand their own research, and eye-tracking professionals.
"Navigating the choices and challenges inherent to conducting eye-tracking research is an incredibly complex and dauting task. Godfroid charts the territory for language researchers meticulously, balancing conceptual and practical guidance and providing an empirically-informed approach unlike anything the field has seen."
Luke Plonsky, Northern Arizona University, USA.
"This nine-chapter volume provides an authoritative look into, and an integrated treatment of, the issues to be considered when conducting eye-tracking research to study language comprehension in speakers of more than one language. It is a must read for everyone new to the use of eye-tracking methodology in SLA and bilingualism, as well as an excellent go-to reference for those already familiar with the method."
Paola Giuli Dussias, The Pennsylvania State University, USA.
List of Figures
List of Tables
Chapter 1: Introducing Eye-Tracking
1.1. Online methodologies in language processing research
1.1.1 Think-aloud protocols
1.1.2 Self-paced reading
1.1.4 Event-related potentials
1.2 Why study eye movements?
Chapter 2: What Do I Need To Know About Eye Movements?
2.1 The observer and the visual field
2.2 Types of eye movements
2.3 The perceptual span
2.4 Where the eyes move
2.5 When the eyes move
2.6 How tight is the eye-mind link? A look at two models of eye-movement control
Chapter 3: What Topics Can Be Studied Using Text-Based Eye Tracking? A Synthetic Review
3.1 Finding a research topic
3.2 Research strands within text-based eye tracking
3.2.2 Vocabulary and the bilingual lexicon
3.2.3 Instructed second language acquisition
Chapter 4: What Topics Can Be Studied Using The Visual World Paradigm? A Synthetic Review
4.1 Foundations of the visual world paradigm
4.2 Research strands within visual world eye tracking
4.2.1 Word recognition
188.8.131.52 What is prediction?
184.108.40.206 Semantic prediction
220.127.116.11 Morphosyntactic prediction
18.104.22.168 Prediction using multiple cues
22.214.171.124 Effects of instruction
4.2.3 Referential processing
Chapter 5: General Principles of Experimental Design
5.1 Doublets, triplets, and quadruplets
5.2 Between- and within-subjects designs
5.3 Trials: practice trials, critical trials, and filler trials
5.4 Primary tasks and secondary tasks
5.5 How many items do I need?
Chapter 6: Designing an Eye-Tracking Study
6.1 Defining areas of interest
6.1.1 Word-based interest areas
6.1.2 Larger areas of text
6.1.3 Image-based interest areas
126.96.36.199 Images in text-based research
188.8.131.52 Images in the visual world paradigm
6.1.4 Setting interest areas in your own research
6.2 Guidelines for text-based eye-tracking research
6.2.1 Spatial constraints
6.2.2 Artistic factors
6.2.3 Linguistic constraints
6.3 Visual world research
6.3.1 Selecting Images
184.108.40.206 Experimental design
220.127.116.11 Visual properties of images
18.104.22.168 Naming consistency and normed databases
22.214.171.124 Should I have a preview?
126.96.36.199 Should my experiment have a fixation cross?
6.3.2 Preparing audio materials
188.8.131.52 Creating audio materials
184.108.40.206 Defining time periods
Chapter 7: Eye-Tracking Measures
7.1 Eye-tracking measures in text-based and visual world research
7.2 Eye-movement measures
7.2.1 Fixations and Skips
220.127.116.11 Counts, probabilities and proportions
18.104.22.168 Fixation duration
22.214.171.124.1 Early versus late eye-movement measures
126.96.36.199.2 Overview of durational measures
188.8.131.52.2.1 Early measures
184.108.40.206.2.2 Late measures
220.127.116.11 Fixation latency
18.104.22.168 Fixation location
7.2.3 Integrated eye-tracking measures
22.214.171.124 Heatmaps, luminance maps, and gaze plots
7.3 Conclusion: What measures should I use?
Chapter 8: Data Cleaning and Analysis
8.1 Data cleaning
8.1.1 Data cleaning software
8.1.2 Inspecting individual participant records and trials
8.1.3 Correcting for drift
8.2 Dealing with outliers
8.2.1 Dealing with overly short and long fixations
8.2.2 Data transformation
8.2.3 Accounting for outliers: Model criticism or aggressive a-priori screening?
8.3 Overview of statistical practices in current eye-tracking research
8.4 Linear Mixed-Effects Models
8.4.1 What’s wrong with repeated-measures ANOVA?
8.4.2 Introducing linear mixed-effects models
8.4.3 Data-driven versus top-down approaches to selecting a random effects structure
8.4.4 Worked example
8.4.5 Reporting the results
8.5 Analyzing time course data
8.5.1 Analyzing separate time windows
8.5.2 Growth curve analysis
126.96.36.199 Data preprocessing
188.8.131.52 Data visualization
184.108.40.206 Logistic or quasi-logistic regression
220.127.116.11 Choosing time terms
18.104.22.168 Worked example
22.214.171.124 Reporting the results
8.6 Synthesis: Which analysis should I use?
Chapter 9: Setting Up An Eye-Tracking Lab
9.1 Choosing an eye tracker
9.1.1 Types of eye trackers and their precursors
9.1.2 Video-based eye trackers
9.1.3 How does an eye-tracker work? Speed, accuracy, and precision
9.2 The eye-tracking lab
9.2.1 Practical considerations
9.2.2 Spatial and technical requirements for a lab
9.2.3 Managing an eye tracking lab
9.3 Getting started
9.3.1 Ideas for research
9.3.2 Tips for beginners
126.96.36.199 About the equipment
188.8.131.52 About data collection
184.108.40.206.1 Organizing the data collection and logistics
220.127.116.11.2 Camera set-up and calibration
18.104.22.168 About data analysis
The Second Language Acquisition Research series presents and explores issues bearing directly on theory construction and/or research methods in the study of second language acquisition. Its titles (both authored and edited volumes) provide thorough and timely overviews of high-interest topics, and include key discussions of existing research findings and their implications. A special emphasis of the series is reflected in the monographs dealing with specific data collection methods or instruments. Each of these monographs addresses the kinds of research questions for which the method/instrument is best suited, offers extended description of its use, and outlines the problems associated with its use. The volumes in this series will be invaluable to students and scholars alike, and perfect for use in courses on research methodology and in individual research.