Feminist Activism at War: Belgrade and Zagreb Feminists in the 1990s, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Feminist Activism at War

Belgrade and Zagreb Feminists in the 1990s, 1st Edition

By Ana Miškovska Kajevska


186 pages

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This book describes, compares, explains, and contextualises the positionings, i.e. discourses and activities, which feminists in Belgrade, Serbia and Zagreb, Croatia produced in relation to the (post-)Yugoslav wars of the 1990s. Two types of positionings are analysed: those which the feminists have produced on the (sexual) war violence and those which they have produced on each other.

Applying a Bourdieuian framework and using interviews with key feminist and peace activists in the region alongside a thorough examination of organisational documents and printed media articles, Ana Miškovska Kajevska challenges the common suggestion that the outbreak of the war violence in 1991 led to the same reorganisation of the Belgrade and Zagreb feminist fields. She corrects the understanding that the activists in each city, who had up until then worked together without tensions, divided at the same time and in the same manner into antinationalists and nationalists and began clashing with each other because of the different war-related positionings. Miškovska Kajevska explains further that the terms ‘antinationalist’ and ‘nationalist’ were not completely value-free and objective, and had different meanings attached to them. These designations were an essential part not only of the local and international efforts to stop the (sexual) war violence, but also of the struggle for legitimacy among the feminists in each city – endeavours in which many Western (feminist) academics, activists, and funders were involved, too.

In addition to providing insights into the situation in Croatia and Serbia, this book will also help increase the understanding of intra-feminist dynamics in other regions of the world which are dominated by nationalism and war violence, and where the work of the local feminists is closely intertwined with – and often dependent on – these activists’ contacts with foreign academic, funding, activist, and/or political entities.


'It will be difficult to overstate the relevance of this book beyond its apparent narrow regional focus – capitals of the two former Yugoslav republics. As the second decade of the 21st century ebbs towards its end, the populism, nationalism, racism and misogyny that marked the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia are back with a vengeance on a global scale. It appears easy to unite as feminists – nationally and internationally – against the most visible and most infamous populist icons. But, it is the nitty-gritty of daily work against the ‘us-and-them’ politics where the conflicting positioning, contesting interpretations, and labelling and silencing occur. We would be wise to learn – in this book - how this happens, if not how to prevent it from happening.' - Dr. Dubravka Zarkov, International Institute of Social Studies

'Miškovska Kajevska’s book challenges simplistic dichotomies that come with nationalism and war. Her incisive analysis dissects divisions that cut across and within Croatian and Serbian feminist groups in the 1990s. It offers a novel perspective on the feminist response to conflict, by conducting a rigorous comparison and marshalling persuasive evidence, and provides a lucid account of fragmentation and restructuring of civil society in the context of nationalism and war. It will be of great value to scholars of nationalism, democratisation and ethnic politics.' - Dr. Denisa Kostovicova, Associate Professor in Global Politics, London School of Economics and Political Science

The book’s sober and critical approach

towards the pre-existing literature and

the collected empirical data highlights the

importance of self-scrutiny and reflexivity

when dealing with processes of naming and

labelling, which are always relational and

have the power to shape reality in times of

political polarisation. Feminist Activism at

War is an extremely useful compendium,

not only for those readers interested in

post-Yugoslav gender and feminist history,

but also for those striving to understand

the complexity of political identification in

conflict and postconflict settings.

Bonfiglioli Chiara, Südosteuropa. Journal of Politics and Society

Table of Contents


Chapter One: Feminism at War: An Introduction

Chapter Two: Portrayals of Feminist NGOs

Chapter Three: A Time to Examine the Common Scholarly Narrative

Chapter Four: Positioning as a Process: Nine Episodes of Interaction

Chapter Five: Revisiting the 1990s: A View from a Distance?

Chapter Six: A Critical Novel Look at the Old Dynamics and Knowledge


About the Author

Ana Miškovska Kajevska is a researcher, peaceworker, and activist affiliated with the Department of Political Science of the University of Amsterdam.

About the Series

Gender and Comparative Politics

Philip Ayoub (Drexel University)

Andrea Krizsan (Central Europe University)

Emanuela Lombardo (Universitad Complutense de Madrid)

Sabine Lang (University of Washington)

Joni Lovenduski (Birkbeck College, University of London)

Amy Mazur (Washington State University)

Joyce Outshoorn (University of Leiden)

Mieke Verloo (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen).

The comparative research conducted in the field of gender and politics today is more than ever resulting in innovative theory building, applying novel research designs and engaging with mainstream political science. Gender & Politics has moved from the margins of political science to the center. Given the highly critical and activist roots of the gender and politics scholarship, it quasi naturally embraces intersectionality. The Routledge Gender and Comparative Politics Book Series aims to reflect this rich, critical and broad scholarship covering the main political science sub-disciplines with, for instance, gender focused research on political economy, civil society, citizenship, political participation and representation, governance and policy making.

To reflect the diversity in the field, the book series welcomes book proposals such as:

  1. Research monographs that capture outstanding scholar contributions
  2. Reference handbooks and companions for the research community as well as tailored-made textbooks for undergraduates and graduates students
  3. Edited volumes which gather the growing participation in research networks and research-focused activities
  4. Research Methods contributions in Comparative Gender Politics that will attract faculty, scholars and students alike.

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Government / Comparative
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Women's Studies