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Filled Polymers
Science and Industrial Applications




ISBN 9781439800423
Published October 14, 2009 by CRC Press
444 Pages 230 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The idea of mixing single available materials into compounds to fulfill a set of desired properties is likely as old as mankind. Highly sophisticated polymer applications would simply be impossible without the enhancement of some of their properties through addition of fine mineral particles or synthetic or natural short fibers. Many filled polymers, either thermoplastics or vulcanizable rubbers, have different chemical natures but exhibit common singular properties. An understanding of why they do so is likely to be the source of promising scientific and engineering developments—and Filled Polymers: Science and Industrial Applications thoroughly explores the question.

Based on the author’s 30 years of research, engineering activities, and teaching in the field of complex polymer systems, this comprehensive survey of polymer applications illustrates their commonalities and the scientific background behind their many industrial uses. The text analyzes theoretical considerations which explain the origin of the singular properties of filled polymers, and it includes appendices which feature a selection of calculation worksheets that offer numerical illustrations of several of the theoretical considerations discussed in the book.

Our understanding of polymer reinforcement remains incomplete because any progress in the field is strongly connected with either the availability of appropriate experimental and observation techniques or theoretical views about polymer-filler interactions, or both. This book presents tools—such as equations tested with familiar calculation software—to clarify these concepts and take understanding to the highest possible level.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Scope of the Book

Filled Polymers vs. Polymer Nanocomposites

 

Types of Fillers

 

Concept of Reinforcement

 

Typical Fillers for Polymers

Carbon Black

White Fillers

Short Synthetic Fibers

Short Fibers of Natural Origin

Appendix

Carbon Black Data

Medalia’s Floc Simulation for Carbon Black Aggregate

Medalia’s Aggregate Morphology Approach

Carbon Black: Number of Particles/Aggregate

 

Polymers and Carbon Black

Elastomers and Carbon Black (CB)

Thermoplastics and Carbon Black

Appendix

Network Junction Theory

Kraus Deagglomeration–Reagglomeration Model for Dynamic Strain Softening (DSS)

Ulmer Modification of the Kraus Model for Dynamic Strain Softening (DSS): Fitting the Model

Aggregates Flocculation/Entanglement

Model (Cluster–Cluster Aggregation (CCA) Model, Klüppel et al.)

Lion et al. Model for Dynamic Strain Softening (DSS)

Maier and Göritz Model for Dynamic Strain Softening (DSS)

 

Polymers and White Fillers

Elastomers and White Fillers

Thermoplastics and White Fillers

Appendix

Adsorption Kinetics of Silica on Silicone Polymers

Modeling the Shear Viscosity Function of Filled

Polymer Systems

Models for the Rheology of Suspensions of Rigid Particles,

Involving the Maximum Packing Fraction Φm

Assessing the Capabilities of Model for the Shear

Viscosity Function of Filled Polymers

Expanding the Krieger–Dougherty Relationship

 

Polymers and Short Fibers

Generalities

Micromechanic Models for Short Fibers-Filled Polymer

Composites

Thermoplastics and Short Glass Fibers

Typical Rheological Aspect of Short Fiber-Filled

Thermoplastic Melts

Thermoplastics and Short Fibers of Natural Origin

Elastomers and Short Fibers

Appendix

Short Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Minimum Fiber Aspect Ratio

Halpin–Tsai Equations for Short Fibers Filled Systems: Numerical Illustration

Nielsen Modification of Halpin–Tsai Equations with Respect to the Maximum Packing Fraction: Numerical Illustration

Mori–Tanaka’s Average Stress Concept: Tandon–Weng

Expressions for Randomly Distributed Ellipsoidal (Fiber-Like) Particles: Numerical Illustration

Shear Lag Model: Numerical illustration

 

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Jean L. Leblanc is the director of the Polymer Rheology and Processing Laboratory at the University P & M Curie in Paris. He has published more than 120 scientific papers and two books, contributed chapters in several collective books, made numerous presentations in international conferences, and has given seminars in Brazil, Canada, Thailand, the USA, and several European countries.