Fire Safety Engineering Design of Structures  book cover
3rd Edition

Fire Safety Engineering Design of Structures

ISBN 9781138074262
Published March 30, 2017 by CRC Press
454 Pages 114 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Designing structures to withstand the effects of fire is challenging, and requires a series of complex design decisions. This third edition of Fire Safety Engineering Design of Structures provides practising fire safety engineers with the tools to design structures to withstand fires. This text details standard industry design decisions, and offers expert design advice, with relevant historical data.

It includes extensive data on materials’ behaviour and modeling -- concrete, steel, composite steel-concrete, timber, masonry, and aluminium. While weighted to the fire sections of the Eurocodes, this book also includes historical data to allow older structures to be assessed. It extensively covers fire damage investigation, and includes as far back as possible, the background to code methods to enable the engineer to better understand why certain procedures are adopted.

What’s new in the Third Edition?

An overview in the first chapter explains the types of design decisions required for optimum fire performance of a structure, and demonstrates the effect of temperature rise on structural performance of structural elements. It extends the sections on less common engineering materials. The section on computer modelling now includes material on coupled heat and mass transfer, enabling a better understanding of the phenomenon of spalling in concrete. It includes a series of worked examples, and provides an extensive reference section.

Readers require a working knowledge of structural mechanics and methods of structural design at ambient conditions, and are helped by some understanding of thermodynamics of heat transfer. This book serves as a resource for engineers working in the field of fire safety, consultants who regularly carry out full fire safety design for structure, and researchers seeking background information.

Dr John Purkiss is a chartered civil and structural engineer/consultant and former lecturer in structural engineering at Aston University, UK.

Dr Long-Yuan Li is Professor of Structural Engineering at Plymouth University, UK, and a Fellow of the Institution of Structural Engineers.

Table of Contents

Fire Safety Engineering

Design Concerns

Control of Ignition

Control of Flammability

Control of Growth of Fire

Fire Safety Management

Means of Escape

Detection and Control of the Fire

Fire Detection

Smoke Control

Fire Fighting Systems


Fire Spread between Structures

Structure Collapse

Regulatory Control

Fire Precautions during Construction and Maintenance


Active Measures

Passive Measures

Design Philosophies

Ambient Limit State Design

Fire Limit States

Load-Bearing Capacity Criterion

Insulation Criterion

Determination of Partial Safety Factors

Assessment Models

Assessment Method-level 1

Assessment Method-level 2

Assessment Method-level 3

Practical Considerations

Applicability of Assessment Levels

Interaction Between Active and Passive Measures

Prescriptive Approach

Standard Fire Test

Drawbacks to the Fire Test


Specimen Limitations

Effect of Restraint or Continuity

Confidentiality of Results


Failure Modes


Prescriptive Determination of Fire Resistance


Structural Steelwork



Behaviour of Natural Fires

Development of Compartment Fires

Pre-flashover Period

Post-flashover Period

Decay Phase

Factors Affecting the Growth Phase

Calculation of Compartment Temperature-Time Responses

Estimation of Fire Characteristics

Fire Severity and Time Equivalence

Localized Fires

Zone Modelling and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Properties of Materials at Elevated Temperatures

Thermal Data

Materials Data

Constitutive Stress-Strain Laws

Calculation Approach

Thermal Analysis

Calculation of Temperature in Timber Element

Structural Analysis

Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Concrete

Volumetric Fractions of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Phases

Mass Transfer of Free Water and Gaseous Mixture

Heat Transfer in a Multiphase Medium

Numerical Results

Design of Concrete Elements

Calculation of Temperatures

Graphical Data

The ISE and Concrete Society Design Guide (1978)

FIP/CEB report (1978)

EN 1992-1-2

Empirical Methods

Wickström's Method

Hertz's Method

Values of Thermal Diffusivity

Position of the 500°C Isotherm

Simple Calculation Methods

Calculation of Load Effects

Direct Calculation

Indirect Calculation

Materials Partial Safety Factors

Methods of Determining Section Capacity

Reduced Section Method (500°C Isotherm)

Method of Slices (Zone Method)

Calibration of the 500°C Isotherm Method and the Zone Method


Comparisons Between the Methods of Calculation

Design and Detailing Considerations




Moisture Content

Concrete Porosity and Permeability

Stress Conditions

Aggregate Type

Section Profile and Cover

Heating Rate

Concrete Strength

High Strength Concrete and Self-Compacting Concrete


Design of Steel Elements

Calculation of Temperatures

Basic Principles

Heat Flow in Uninsulated Steelwork

Heat Flow in Insulated Steelwork

ECCS Method of Calculation

EN 1993-1-2 Approach

Effect of Moisture

Effective Density of Insulation

Delay Time

Empirical Approach for The Calculation of Temperatures

Bare Steelwork

Protected Steelwork

Calculation of Am/V

Thermal Properties of Insulation Materials

Design of Non-composite Steelwork

Determination of Structural Load in the Fire Limit State

EN 1993-1-2 Approach for the Determination of Structural Fire Capacity

Background to the Eurocode Method

Eurocode Methods

Other Steelwork Constructions

External Steelwork

Shelf Angle Floors

Stainless Steel

Cold-Formed Steel Sections

Methods of Protection

Types of Protection

Board Systems

Spray Protection

Intumescent Paints


Concrete Encasement

Manufacturer’s Data


Aging and Partial Loss of Protection

Aging Effects

Partial Loss of Protection

Composite Construction

Composite Slabs

Insulation Requirement

Calculation Approach

Effective Thickness

Load-bearing Capacity

Calculation of Moment Capacity

Composite Beams

Critical Temperature Approach

Full Moment Calculation

Concrete-filled Steel I- and H-Section Columns

Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

Design of Timber Elements

Design to EN 1995-1-2

Empirical Approaches

Masonry, Aluminium, Plastics and Glass



Plastics and Plastic-Based Composites



Tests on Isolated Frames

Tests on the Large Frame Structures at Cardington

Fire Behaviour of Connections

Pitched Roof Portals

Assessment and Repair of Fire Damaged Structures

Visual Inspection

Damage Assessment

Strength Assessment of the Structure

Methods of Repair

Demolition of Fire Damaged Structures


Author Index

Subject Index

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"Li and Purkiss have produced an extremely well researched, comprehensively referenced and informative book."
—Building Engineer, October 2014

"A standard reference for everyone who is and will be involved in fire safety."
—Ralph Hamerlinck, Bouwen met Staal