3rd Edition

Fire Safety Engineering Design of Structures

By John A. Purkiss, Long-Yuan Li Copyright 2014
    454 Pages 114 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    452 Pages 114 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Designing structures to withstand the effects of fire is challenging, and requires a series of complex design decisions. This third edition of Fire Safety Engineering Design of Structures provides practising fire safety engineers with the tools to design structures to withstand fires. This text details standard industry design decisions, and offers expert design advice, with relevant historical data.

    It includes extensive data on materials’ behaviour and modeling -- concrete, steel, composite steel-concrete, timber, masonry, and aluminium. While weighted to the fire sections of the Eurocodes, this book also includes historical data to allow older structures to be assessed. It extensively covers fire damage investigation, and includes as far back as possible, the background to code methods to enable the engineer to better understand why certain procedures are adopted.

    What’s new in the Third Edition?

    An overview in the first chapter explains the types of design decisions required for optimum fire performance of a structure, and demonstrates the effect of temperature rise on structural performance of structural elements. It extends the sections on less common engineering materials. The section on computer modelling now includes material on coupled heat and mass transfer, enabling a better understanding of the phenomenon of spalling in concrete. It includes a series of worked examples, and provides an extensive reference section.

    Readers require a working knowledge of structural mechanics and methods of structural design at ambient conditions, and are helped by some understanding of thermodynamics of heat transfer. This book serves as a resource for engineers working in the field of fire safety, consultants who regularly carry out full fire safety design for structure, and researchers seeking background information.

    Dr John Purkiss is a chartered civil and structural engineer/consultant and former lecturer in structural engineering at Aston University, UK.

    Dr Long-Yuan Li is Professor of Structural Engineering at Plymouth University, UK, and a Fellow of the Institution of Structural Engineers.

    Fire Safety Engineering

    Design Concerns

    Control of Ignition

    Control of Flammability

    Control of Growth of Fire

    Fire Safety Management

    Means of Escape

    Detection and Control of the Fire

    Fire Detection

    Smoke Control

    Fire Fighting Systems


    Fire Spread between Structures

    Structure Collapse

    Regulatory Control

    Fire Precautions during Construction and Maintenance


    Active Measures

    Passive Measures

    Design Philosophies

    Ambient Limit State Design

    Fire Limit States

    Load-Bearing Capacity Criterion

    Insulation Criterion

    Determination of Partial Safety Factors

    Assessment Models

    Assessment Method-level 1

    Assessment Method-level 2

    Assessment Method-level 3

    Practical Considerations

    Applicability of Assessment Levels

    Interaction Between Active and Passive Measures

    Prescriptive Approach

    Standard Fire Test

    Drawbacks to the Fire Test


    Specimen Limitations

    Effect of Restraint or Continuity

    Confidentiality of Results


    Failure Modes


    Prescriptive Determination of Fire Resistance


    Structural Steelwork



    Behaviour of Natural Fires

    Development of Compartment Fires

    Pre-flashover Period

    Post-flashover Period

    Decay Phase

    Factors Affecting the Growth Phase

    Calculation of Compartment Temperature-Time Responses

    Estimation of Fire Characteristics

    Fire Severity and Time Equivalence

    Localized Fires

    Zone Modelling and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    Properties of Materials at Elevated Temperatures

    Thermal Data

    Materials Data

    Constitutive Stress-Strain Laws

    Calculation Approach

    Thermal Analysis

    Calculation of Temperature in Timber Element

    Structural Analysis

    Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Concrete

    Volumetric Fractions of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Phases

    Mass Transfer of Free Water and Gaseous Mixture

    Heat Transfer in a Multiphase Medium

    Numerical Results

    Design of Concrete Elements

    Calculation of Temperatures

    Graphical Data

    The ISE and Concrete Society Design Guide (1978)

    FIP/CEB report (1978)

    EN 1992-1-2

    Empirical Methods

    Wickström's Method

    Hertz's Method

    Values of Thermal Diffusivity

    Position of the 500°C Isotherm

    Simple Calculation Methods

    Calculation of Load Effects

    Direct Calculation

    Indirect Calculation

    Materials Partial Safety Factors

    Methods of Determining Section Capacity

    Reduced Section Method (500°C Isotherm)

    Method of Slices (Zone Method)

    Calibration of the 500°C Isotherm Method and the Zone Method


    Comparisons Between the Methods of Calculation

    Design and Detailing Considerations




    Moisture Content

    Concrete Porosity and Permeability

    Stress Conditions

    Aggregate Type

    Section Profile and Cover

    Heating Rate

    Concrete Strength

    High Strength Concrete and Self-Compacting Concrete


    Design of Steel Elements

    Calculation of Temperatures

    Basic Principles

    Heat Flow in Uninsulated Steelwork

    Heat Flow in Insulated Steelwork

    ECCS Method of Calculation

    EN 1993-1-2 Approach

    Effect of Moisture

    Effective Density of Insulation

    Delay Time

    Empirical Approach for The Calculation of Temperatures

    Bare Steelwork

    Protected Steelwork

    Calculation of Am/V

    Thermal Properties of Insulation Materials

    Design of Non-composite Steelwork

    Determination of Structural Load in the Fire Limit State

    EN 1993-1-2 Approach for the Determination of Structural Fire Capacity

    Background to the Eurocode Method

    Eurocode Methods

    Other Steelwork Constructions

    External Steelwork

    Shelf Angle Floors

    Stainless Steel

    Cold-Formed Steel Sections

    Methods of Protection

    Types of Protection

    Board Systems

    Spray Protection

    Intumescent Paints


    Concrete Encasement

    Manufacturer’s Data


    Aging and Partial Loss of Protection

    Aging Effects

    Partial Loss of Protection

    Composite Construction

    Composite Slabs

    Insulation Requirement

    Calculation Approach

    Effective Thickness

    Load-bearing Capacity

    Calculation of Moment Capacity

    Composite Beams

    Critical Temperature Approach

    Full Moment Calculation

    Concrete-filled Steel I- and H-Section Columns

    Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

    Design of Timber Elements

    Design to EN 1995-1-2

    Empirical Approaches

    Masonry, Aluminium, Plastics and Glass



    Plastics and Plastic-Based Composites



    Tests on Isolated Frames

    Tests on the Large Frame Structures at Cardington

    Fire Behaviour of Connections

    Pitched Roof Portals

    Assessment and Repair of Fire Damaged Structures

    Visual Inspection

    Damage Assessment

    Strength Assessment of the Structure

    Methods of Repair

    Demolition of Fire Damaged Structures


    Author Index

    Subject Index


    John A. Purkiss, Long-Yuan Li

    "Li and Purkiss have produced an extremely well researched, comprehensively referenced and informative book."
    —Building Engineer, October 2014

    "A standard reference for everyone who is and will be involved in fire safety."
    —Ralph Hamerlinck, Bouwen met Staal