The precipitation and deposition of solids are a major challenge in the production of oil and gas. Flow assurance solids are formed because of unavoidable changes in temperature, pressure and composition of the oil-gas-water flowstream, from reservoir conditions to processing conditions. The advent of subsea production and the increased exploitation of heavy crudes have made flow assurance issues dominant in ensuring efficient and safe exploitation of hydrocarbon assets. Five troublesome flow assurance solids are described in the book: asphaltene, paraffin wax, natural gas hydrate, naphthenate and inorganic scale. These big-five solids are presented in stand-alone chapters. Each chapter is designed to be readable without clutter. Derivations of equations and descriptions of supporting details are given in several appendices.
The book is intended for professional engineers and natural scientist working in E&P companies, engineering companies, service companies and specialized companies. An understanding of the big-five solids is required throughout the lifetime of oil and gas assets, from early development to abandonment. The technical, safety and environmental risks associated with deposition problems in near-wellbore formations, production tubing, wellhead equipment, flowlines and processing facilities, are relevant for decisions in the oil and gas industry and in outside regulatory and financial entities.
Table of Contents
Introduction. Basic Phenomena. Asphaltene. Paraffin Wax. Natural Gas Hydrate. Inorganic Scale. Napththenates. Other Solids. References. Appendices.
Jon Steinar Gudmundsson is professor emeritus in petroleum engineering at NTNU in Trondheim. Educated in chemical engineering in Edinburgh (Scotland) and Birmingham (England), the author worked in geothermal engineering in his native Iceland for many years. From 1981, the author was an associated professor of petroleum engineering and the manager of the Stanford Geothermal Program. From 1985, the author served as the director of the UNU Geothermal Training Programme in Reykjavík. In 1989, the author was appointed professor of petroleum engineering at NTNU. Courses taught include production engineering, petroleum processing and natural gas technology. Fluid flow has been central in the authors R&D, advising masters and doctoral students on a wide-range of topics. Long-term activities include new technology for the storage and transport of frozen natural gas hydrate (and cold-flow), in cooperation with industrial partners. Also, the development of a new technology (pressure pulse) to monitor deposit thickness in pipelines, now available from a major service company. Jon is a member of scientific academies in Iceland and Norway, and the professional societies TEKNA (Norwegian Society of Graduate Technical and Scientific Professionals) and SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers). Community service includes eight years on the Trondheim City Council. Lastly and most important, the author is married and has three grown-up children and presently two grandchildren.