Fluoride in Drinking Water: Status, Issues, and Solutions, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Fluoride in Drinking Water

Status, Issues, and Solutions, 1st Edition

By A.K. Gupta, S. Ayoob

CRC Press

194 pages | 12 Color Illus. | 29 B/W Illus.

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Explore the Health Effects of Fluoride Pollution

Fluoride in Drinking Water: Status, Issues, and Solutions establishes the negative impacts of naturally occurring fluoride on human health and considers the depth and scope of fluoride pollution on an international scale. The book discusses current global water quality and fluoride-related issues and draws overall awareness to the problems associated with fluoride in drinking water.

Utilizing recent scientific studies to examine the current status of fluoride pollution, it provides a fundamental understanding of fluorosis, describes health problems associated with fluorosis, and discusses viable scientific solutions. The book places special emphasis on India, Africa, China, and other countries deeply affected by fluoride pollution.

A single, comprehensive source covering health issues related to fluoride and its effect on humans, this book:

  • Compiles information from scientific literature on the state of fluoride pollution
  • Characterizes the human impacts of fluorosis
  • Provides a comparative evaluation of technologies used for defluoridation
  • Gives a comprehensive account of human health effects with appropriate scientific descriptions and photographs
  • Includes detailed descriptions on the geochemistry of fluoride entry into groundwater aquifers
  • Presents a case study that deals with the successful removal of fluoride from drinking water

A vital resource for environmental and public health officials as well as academic researchers in the area, Fluoride in Drinking Water: Status, Issues, and Solutions covers human health issues associated with fluoride-rich water and describes relevant techniques for defluoridation that can be used to overcome the stress, issues, and challenges of natural fluoride in drinking water.


"This book recorded the outstanding feat of a chemist who in the 1930s managed to measure a few ppm of fluoride in water; in the days before ion selective electrodes and other modern means, this was a magnificent achievement.

Each chapter concludes with a comprehensive list of up-to-date references and a summary of the main points and conclusions; a useful practice which might well be followed by other authors."

Chromatographia 2016

Table of Contents

Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Global Perspective


Drinking-Water Scenario

Geogenic Pollutants

Fluoride in Humans

Genesis of Fluoride in Groundwater



Scenario of Fluoride Pollution


Global Scenario



Dental Fluorosis


Dental Effects of Fluoride

Dental Fluorosis: History and Occurrence

Development of Dental Fluorosis



Skeletal Fluorosis


Action of Fluoride on Bone

Fluoride Exposure Level and Skeletal Fracture

Skeletal Fluorosis

Fluoride Level and Effects Related to Skeletal Fluorosis

Significance of Other Factors

Recent Developments



Stress Effects of Fluoride on Humans


Nonskeletal Fluorosis

Fluoride and Cancer

Fluoride and Gastrointestinal System

Other Health Effects



Fluoride in the Environment and Its Toxicological Effects


Sources of Environmental Exposure

Environmental Transport, Distribution, and Transformation

Environmental Levels and Human Exposure

Effects of Fluoride on Laboratory Animals and in vitro Systems

Effect of Fluoride on Aquatic Organisms

Effect of Fluoride on Plants

Effect of Fluoride on Animals

Guidelines Values and Standards



Defluoridation Techniques: An Overview



Co-precipitation of Fluoride


Electrochemical Methods

Membrane Processes

Defluoridation Techniques: A Summary



Adsorptive Removal of Fluoride: A Case Study


Materials and Methods

Batch Studies

Theoretical and Mathematical Formulations

Results and Discussions

Summary of the Case Study

Conclusions of the Case Study


About the Authors

A. K. Gupta earned a PhD in environmental science and engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India. Currently, he is a professor in the environmental engineering division of the civil engineering department at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India, and he is actively involved in teaching, research, and consultancy. His research interests include water treatment, environmental impact assessment, monitoring, and modeling of air and water pollution, and geogenic pollutant scavenging. He has more than 60 publications in top-ranking international journals and is a renowned technical consultant in the arena of environmental engineering.

S. Ayoob is a professor in the department of civil engineering and the principal of the TKM College of Engineering, Kerala, India. He graduated in civil engineering from the TKM College of Engineering, Kollam, India, and earned his master’s and doctoral degrees at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. He also served as course leader and headed the department of health, safety, and environmental management at the International College of Engineering and Management, the Sultanate of Oman (affiliated with the University of Central Lancashire, UK) for a short period of time.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply