In this book, the author examines two approaches to the analysis of China's industrialization efforts between 1870 and 1911: the generally accepted domestic-limitation approach and the alternative foreign-intervention approach. He points to the year 1897 as a turning point in China's development.
1. Introduction 2. A Comparison of the Domestic-Limitation and Foreign-Intervention Approaches 3. Could China Have Industrialized? 4. The National and International Environments of Chinese Economic Self-Strengthening, 1870–1897 5. Sprouts of Industry: The Chinese Self-Strengthening Enterprises, 1870–1897 6. Foreign Intervention Drains Chinese Capital and Erodes Political Legitimacy, 1897–1911 7. Chinese Industrial Stagnation, 1897–1911 8. Foreign Intervention Levels: The Key Variable Influencing Ch'ing Chinese Industrialization