5th Edition

Forensic Anthropology Laboratory Manual

By Steven N. Byers, Chelsey A. Juarez Copyright 2025
    192 Pages 132 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    192 Pages 132 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This manual provides students in academic laboratory courses with hands-on experience of the major processes of forensic anthropology. Designed to accompany the textbook Introduction to Forensic Anthropology 6th edition, the manual introduces core procedures and protocol, with exercise worksheets to reinforce the methodologies of forensic anthropology and enhance student comprehension. For the fifth edition, the manual has been updated in line with the textbook, incorporating new methods, figures, and worksheets. Each chapter contains explanations of the terminology, osteological features, and measurements needed to understand each of the topics. New for this edition, in many chapters students will find the incorporation of QR codes to give them immediate access to relevant video or website content to assist with the task at hand. In addition, in an attempt to create an inclusive learning environment, the authors have included online resources for most chapters that can be used in place of plastic skeletons or other classroom resources so that all students can utilize the lab manual regardless of their classroom setup. Chapters may be covered in one session or multiple sessions and include lists of both basic and optional lab materials, enabling instructors to tailor each lab to the resources they have available.

    1. Introduction 

    Learning Objectives  

    Expected Outcomes  

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials

      

    2. Bones, Teeth, Measurements and Methods

    Learning Objectives  

    Expected Outcomes  

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials  

    Basic Terms 

    Exercise 2.1: Cranial Skeleton  

    Exercise 2.2: Axial Skeleton  

    Exercise 2.3: Appendicular Skeleton: Upper Limbs  

    Exercise 2.4: Appendicular Skeleton: Lower Limbs  

    Exercise 2.5: Human Odontology 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

    Learning Objectives  

    Expected Outcomes 

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials 

    Exercise 2b.1 Basic Instruments and Their Use 

    Exercise 2b.2 Metric System and U.S. Measure 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    3. Establishing Medicolegal Significance  

    Learning Objectives  

    Expected Outcomes  

    Bones and Teeth versus Other Materials Exercise 

    Minimum Materials  

    Optional Materials 

    Human Versus Nonhuman Exercise  

    Minimum Materials  

    Optional Materials  

    Recent Versus Nonrecent Exercise 

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials  

    Exercise 3.1: Distinguishing Bone and Teeth from Other Material 

    Exercise 3.2: Distinguishing Human from Nonhuman Remains 

    Exercise 3.3: Distinguishing Recent from Nonrecent Remains 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    4. Recovery Scene Methods 

    Learning Objectives 

    Expected Outcomes 

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials 

    Exercise 4: Surface-Deposited Body (Outdoor or Indoor) 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    5. Estimating Postmortem Interval

    Learning Objectives 

    Expected Outcomes 

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials 

    Exercise 5.1: Estimating PMI Using General Decomposition 

    Exercise 5.2: Estimating PMI Using TBS and ADD 

    Exercise 5.3: Estimating PMI Using TADS and ADD 

    Exercise 5.4: Estimating PMI Using Animal Scavenging 

    Exercise 5.5: Estimating PMI Using Deterioration of Clothing and Other Materials 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    6. Initial Treatment and Examination

    Learning Objectives 

    Expected Outcomes 

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials 

    Exercise 6.1: Reconstruction 

    Exercise 6.2: Sorting 

    Exercise 6.3: Reassembly 

    Exercise 6.4: Inventorying Remains 

    Exercise 6.5: Highly Fragmented Remains 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    7. Attribution of Population Affinity

    Learning Objectives 

    Expected Outcomes 

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials 

    Exercise 7.1: Estimating Population Affinity Using the Frequencies of Ordinally Scored Cranial Anthroposcopic Traits 

    Exercise 7.2: Estimating Population Affinity Using Dental Characteristics 

    Exercise 7.3: Estimating Population Affinity Using Discriminant Function Analysis of Dental Traits 

    Exercise 7.4: Estimating Population Affinity Using Osteometry 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    8. Attribution of Sex

    Learning Objectives 

    Expected Outcomes 

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials 

    Exercise 8.1: Estimating Sex Using Pelvic Anthroposcopy 

    Exercise 8.2: Estimating Sex Using Cranial Anthroposcopy 

    Exercise 8.3: Estimating Sex Using MorphoPASSE 

    Exercise 8.3: Estimating Sex Using Cranial Metrics: Discriminant Functions 

    Exercise 8.4: Estimating Sex Using Postcranial Metrics 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    9. Estimation of Age at Death

    Learning Objectives 

    Expected Outcomes 

    Minimum Materials 

    Optional Materials 

    SUBADULTS 

    Exercise 9.1: Estimating Age at Death Using Long Limb Bone Measurements 

    Exercise 9.2: Estimating Age at Death Using Union of Primary Ossification Centers 

    Exercise 9.3: Estimating Age at Death Using Tooth Formation and Eruption 

    Exercise 9.4: Estimating Age at Death Using Epiphyseal Union 

    ADULTS 

    Exercise 9.5: Estimating Age at Death Using Symphyseal Surface 

    Exercise 9.6: Estimating Age at Death Using Auricular Surface of the Os Coxae 

    Exercise 9.7: Estimating Age at Death Using Sternal Rib Ends 

    Note to Instructors 

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    10. Calculation of Stature

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 10.1: Calculating Stature Using Long Limb Bones

    Exercise 10.2: Calculating Stature Using the Fully Method

    Exercise 10.3: Calculating Stature From Fleshed Body Segments

    Exercise 10.4: Adjustments to Stature Calculations

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    11. Death, Trauma, and the Skeleton

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 11.1: Basics of Bone Trauma

    Exercise 11.2: Forces Causing Trauma

    Exercise 11.3: Types of Trauma

    Exercise 11.4: Timing of Bone Injury

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    12. Projectile Trauma

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 12: Analysis of Projectile Wounds

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    13. Blunt Trauma

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 13.1: Analyzing Blunt Trauma to the Skull

    Exercises 13.2A and 13.2B: Analyzing Blunt Trauma to the Postcranial Bones

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    14. Sharp and Miscellaneous Trauma

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 14.1: Analyzing Sharp Trauma

    Exercise 14.2: Analyzing Strangulation

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    15. Antemortem Skeletal Conditions

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 15.1: Analyzing Pathological Conditions

    Exercise 15.2: Analyzing Skeletal Anomalies

    Exercise 15.3: Analyzing Occupational Stress Markers

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    16. Postmortem Changes to Bone

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 16.1: Analyzing Saw Marks

    Exercise 16.2: Analyzing Other Postmortem Damage

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    17. Additional Aspects of Individualization

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 17.1: Facial Approximation

    Exercise 17.2: Computerized Facial Reconstruction

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    18. Obtaining an Identification

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 18.1: Identification From Radiographs

    Exercise 18.2: Identification From Photographic Superimposition

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

     

    19. Conclusion

    Learning Objectives

    Expected Outcomes

    Minimum Materials

    Optional Materials

    Exercise 19.1: Forensic Anthropology Report

    Exercise 19.2: Expert Witness Testimony Evaluation

    Note to Instructors

    Exercise Worksheets

    Biography

    Steven N. Byers has a Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of New Mexico (UNM), USA. Now retired, he worked for a number of years on various campuses of UNM, teaching courses in Forensic Anthropology, Biological Anthropology, and Archaeology. He is currently serving on the Anthropology Consensus Body of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Standards Board, in addition to focusing on Southeastern United States bioarchaeology. Byers’ publications with Taylor & Francis include Introduction to Forensic Anthropology (in its 6th edition).

    Chelsey A. Juarez is an Associate professor of Anthropology and the Director of the Fresno State Forensic Anthropology Laboratory at California State University Fresno. She is also Director of the Central California Missing and Unidentified Deceased Persons Cold Case Initiative, a 19-county initiative to identify the deceased unidentified in rural Central California. Her research interests focus on isotopic investigations of provenance, and diet with a special focus on the Latino Diaspora, and the U.S. Mexico border through time. In addition, Juarez has researched and written about child abuse, intimate partner violence, and case accuracy trends in Forensic Anthropology. Dr. Juarez is a first generation Mexican-American. She holds a Doctorate from University of California Santa Cruz in Biological Anthropology with a specialization in Forensic Anthropology, and the Latino Diaspora.