4th Edition

Forensic Science
The Basics, Fourth Edition



  • Available for pre-order. Item will ship after July 6, 2021
ISBN 9780367251499
July 6, 2021 Forthcoming by CRC Press
656 Pages 411 Color Illustrations

USD $99.95

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Book Description

Forensic Science: The Basics, Fourth Edition is fully updated, building on the popularity of the prior editions. The book provides a fundamental background in forensic science, criminal investigation, and court testimony, examining describes how various forms of evidence are collected, preserved, and analyzed, to outline how expert testimony—based on the analysis of forensic evidence—is presented in court.

The book addresses knowledge of the natural and physical sciences, including biology and chemistry, while introducing readers to the application of science to the justice system. New topics added to this edition include coverage of the formation and work of the NIST Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSACs), new sections on forensic palynology (pollen), forensic taphonomy, the opioid crisis, forensic genetics and genealogy, recent COVID-19 fraud schemes perpetrated by cybercriminals, and a wholly new chapter on forensic psychology.

Each chapter presents a set of learning objectives, a mini glossary, and acronyms. While chapter topics and coverage flow logically, each chapter can stand on its own, allowing for continuous or selected classroom reading and study.

Forensic Science, Fourth Edition an ideal introductory textbook to present forensic science principles and practices to students, including those with a basic science background without requiring prior forensic science coursework.

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface

Authors

Contributors

PART I: Forensic Science and Investigation

Chapter 1: Introduction to Forensic Science

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

What Is Forensic Science?

History and Development of Forensic Science

What Is a Forensic Scientist?

The United States Forensic Science System

Other Forensic Science Systems

The Organization of Forensic Science Laboratories

Examination of the Forensic Sciences by Outside Organizations

After the National Research Council’s NAS Report

Scientific Working Groups Reform and Support Quality Assurance

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Chapter 2: Crime Scene Investigation

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Crime Scene as Recent History

Crime Scene Investigation Process

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Study

Chapter 3: Nature of Evidence

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Classification of Evidence

Positive and Negative Controls

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Study

PART II: Tools of the Trade

Chapter 4: Separating Complex Mixtures

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Physical Separation of Mixtures

Solid-Phase Extractions

Chromatography

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Chapter 5: Light and Matter

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

What Is Light?

Light as a Wave: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Properties of Waves

Energy of Light: The Photon

Interactions of Light Energy and Matter

Spectrophotometer

Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrophotometry

Infrared Spectrophotometry

Mass Spectrometry

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On The Web

Chapter 6: Microscopy

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Lens: How Objects Are Magnified

Compound Microscope

Modifications of the Compound Microscope

Electron Microscopy

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Chapter 7: Detector Dogs as Forensic Tools

Susan Stejskal

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Scenarios

Forensic Tool: Canine Olfaction

Back to the Cases

Utility in Forensics

Summary

Test Yourself

References

On the Web

Chapter 8: Digital Evidence, Computer Forensics, and Investigation

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Challenges

Physical versus Virtual Crimes

Computer Crime

Criminal Law

Computer Crime Investigation

Wireless and Handheld Devices

Digital Cell Phone and Handheld Investigation

Computer Forensics

Legal Proceedings

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Studies

Chapter 9: Forensic Engineering

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Engineering Profession

Forensic Engineer

Forensic Engineering Case Studies

Accident Reconstruction

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Study

PART III: Patterns and Impressions

Chapter 10: Fingerprints and Other Impressions

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction: A Note on Pattern Evidence

Quest for a Reliable Method of Personal Identification

Origin of Fingerprints

Anatomy of Fingerprints

Detection and Visualization of Fingerprints

Comparison of Fingerprints

Comparison of Single Fingerprints

Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS and IAFIS)

Common Questions about Fingerprints

Other Impressions: Footwear and Tire Treads

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Studies

Chapter 11: Questioned Documents

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

What Is a Questioned Document?

Questioned Document Examiner

Handwriting Analysis

Erasures, Obliterations, and Alterations

Typewriters, Photocopiers, and Computer Printers

Paper Examination

Ink Examinations

Physical Matches on Torn Paper

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Studies

Chapter 12: Firearms and Toolmarks

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Firearms Identification

Anatomy of a Live Round (Cartridge)

Examination of Firearms Evidence

Digital Imaging Systems for Ammunition

Distance-of-Fire Determinations

Toolmarks

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Studies

PART IV: Forensic Biology

Chapter 13: Forensic Pathology

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

How to Become a Forensic Pathologist

Investigation of Death: Coroners and Medical Examiners

Death Investigation Process

Postmortem Interval: Time of Death

Exhumations

Teamwork Approach

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Study

Chapter 14: Anthropology and Odontology

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Human Skeleton

Identification of Skeletal Remains

Individualization of Human Bone

Collection of Bones

Forensic Odontology

Summary

Test It Yourself 1: Pelvic Bones and Age

Test It Yourself 2: Bite Marks

Test Yourself

Further Reading

Helpful Websites

Case Studies

Chapter 15: Forensic Palynology & Entomology

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Forensic Palynology: Pollen and Spores as Evidence

Becoming a Forensic Entomologist

PMI: The Life Cycle of the Blowfly

Decomposition of a Body after Death

Factors that Affect PMI

Entomological Investigation and Evidence Collection

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Studies

Chapter 16: Serology

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Blood

Analysis of Blood

Other Biological Fluids and Stains

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Summary

Appendix A: Trigonometry Calculation for Locating a Bloodstain

Try it Yourself: The Genetics of Blood Typing

Test Yourself

Further Reading

Useful Websites

Case Study

Chapter 17: DNA Typing

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

What Is DNA?

Collection and Preservation of DNA Evidence

History of DNA Typing

Current Method of DNA Typing: STRs

Mitochondrial DNA

CODIS

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Studies

 

Chapter 18: Hair

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

What Is Hair?

Hair Growth

Hair Color

Structure of Human Hair

Human versus Nonhuman Hairs

Hair Treatment and Damage

Comparison of Human Hairs

What Can Be Determined from the Structure of Hair?

DNA Analysis of Hair

Hair as a Source of Drugs

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Study

PART V: Forensic Chemistry

Chapter 19: Illicit Drugs

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Illicit Drugs

Control of Illicit Drugs in the United States

Analysis of Illicit Drugs

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Study

 

Chapter 20: Forensic Toxicology

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Forensic Toxicology

Becoming a Forensic Toxicologist

Principles of Pharmacology

Pharmacology and Toxicology of Ethyl Alcohol

Absorption of Ethanol

Drunk Driving Laws

Field Sobriety Testing

Measurement of BAC

Driving Under the Influence of Drugs

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Study

Chapter 21: Fibers, Paints, and Other Polymers

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

What Is a Polymer?

Textile Fibers

Types of Fibers

Fiber Morphology

Analysis of Synthetic Fibers

Chemical Analysis of Fibers

Interpretation of Fiber Evidence

Paints and Other Coatings

Types of Paint

How Cars Are Painted

Collection of Paint Evidence

Analysis of Paint

Evidentiary Value of Paint

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Studies

Chapter 22: Glass and Soil

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronym

Introduction

Glass

Glass as Forensic Evidence

Soil

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Studies

Chapter 23: Fires and Explosions

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

What Is a Fire?

Extinguishing a Fire

Incendiary Fires

Investigation of a Fire

Role of Accelerants

Analysis of Fire Scene Evidence

Analysis of Accelerants

Explosions

Investigation of Bombing Scenes

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Case Study

PART VI: Additional Forensic Science Topics

Chapter 24: Presentation of Forensic Evidence in Court

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

Admissibility of Evidence

Forensic Laboratories: Accreditation, Certification and Laboratory Reporting

Expert Testimony

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

Chapter 25: Forensic Psychology

Learning Objectives

Mini Glossary

Acronyms

Introduction

What is Forensic Psychology?

Behavioral Evidence Analysis: The Truth About Profiling

Treatment and Evaluation of Offenders

Research

Summary

Test Yourself

Further Reading

On the Web

 

Index

 

 

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Author(s)

Biography

Kathy Mirakovits is currently the principle of Forensic Science Education Consulting, LLC, a training resource providing workshops across the United States for teachers who wish to learn the application of forensic science in a school curriculum. She is a now-retired teacher to taught forensic science and physics at Portage Northern High School in Portage, Michigan, and physics at Kalamazoo Valley Community College in Michigan. She holds an MS in science education from Western Michigan University. She taught general science, physical science, chemistry, biology, earth science, and physics at the high school and two-year college level for more than 25 years. She also conducts. She has developed numerous forensic science educational products and has led workshops at the National Science Teachers Association. Kathy has served as president of the Michigan Chapter of the American Association of Physics Teachers and as a curriculum writer for the Michigan Department of Education. She was previously the high school director for the Michigan Science Teachers Association. She received the RadioShack Science Teaching Award and was a state finalist for the Presidential Award for Excellence in Math and Science Teaching.

Jay A. Siegel (Deceased) held a PhD in analytical chemistry from The George Washington University and received its Distinguished Faculty Scholar award in 2009. He worked as a forensic chemist with the Virginia Bureau of Forensic Sciences for three years before spending 25 years as a professor and director of the forensic science program in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. In 2003 he went to Indiana University–Purdue University as founder and director of the forensic and investigative sciences program in the School of Science. In 2008 he was named the chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. He retired in 2012 and, sadly, passed away in September 2017 at the age of 71. Dr. Siegel was the co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management: An International Journal and Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition, the co-author of Fundamentals of Forensic Science, and the author of Forensic Science: A Beginner’s Guide. He testified over 200 times in federal and military courts, and was named distinguished fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 2009.