4th Edition

Forensic Science The Basics, Fourth Edition

By Kathy Mirakovits, Jay A Siegel Copyright 2021
    738 Pages 411 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    Forensic Science: The Basics, Fourth Edition is fully updated, building on the popularity of the prior editions. The book provides a fundamental background in forensic science, criminal investigation and court testimony. It describes how various forms of evidence are collected, preserved and analyzed scientifically, and then presented in court based on the analysis of the forensic expert.

    The book addresses knowledge of the natural and physical sciences, including biology and chemistry, while introducing readers to the application of science to the justice system. New topics added to this edition include coverage of the formation and work of the NIST Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSACs), new sections on forensic palynology (pollen), forensic taphonomy, the opioid crisis, forensic genetics and genealogy, recent COVID-19 fraud schemes perpetrated by cybercriminals, and a wholly new chapter on forensic psychology.

    Each chapter presents a set of learning objectives, a mini glossary, and acronyms. While chapter topics and coverage flow logically, each chapter can stand on its own, allowing for continuous or selected classroom reading and study.

    Forensic Science, Fourth Edition is an ideal introductory textbook to present forensic science principles and practices to students, including those with a basic science background without requiring prior forensic science coursework.

    Contents

    Preface

    Authors

    Contributors

    PART I: Forensic Science and Investigation

    Chapter 1: Introduction to Forensic Science

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    What Is Forensic Science?

    History and Development of Forensic Science

    What Is a Forensic Scientist?

    The United States Forensic Science System

    Other Forensic Science Systems

    The Organization of Forensic Science Laboratories

    Examination of the Forensic Sciences by Outside Organizations

    After the National Research Council’s NAS Report

    Scientific Working Groups Reform and Support Quality Assurance

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Chapter 2: Crime Scene Investigation

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Crime Scene as Recent History

    Crime Scene Investigation Process

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Study

    Chapter 3: Nature of Evidence

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Classification of Evidence

    Positive and Negative Controls

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Study

    PART II: Tools of the Trade

    Chapter 4: Separating Complex Mixtures

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Physical Separation of Mixtures

    Solid-Phase Extractions

    Chromatography

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Chapter 5: Light and Matter

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    What Is Light?

    Light as a Wave: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Properties of Waves

    Energy of Light: The Photon

    Interactions of Light Energy and Matter

    Spectrophotometer

    Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrophotometry

    Infrared Spectrophotometry

    Mass Spectrometry

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On The Web

    Chapter 6: Microscopy

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Lens: How Objects Are Magnified

    Compound Microscope

    Modifications of the Compound Microscope

    Electron Microscopy

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Chapter 7: Detector Dogs as Forensic Tools

    Susan Stejskal

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Scenarios

    Forensic Tool: Canine Olfaction

    Back to the Cases

    Utility in Forensics

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    References

    On the Web

    Chapter 8: Digital Evidence, Computer Forensics, and Investigation

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Challenges

    Physical versus Virtual Crimes

    Computer Crime

    Criminal Law

    Computer Crime Investigation

    Wireless and Handheld Devices

    Digital Cell Phone and Handheld Investigation

    Computer Forensics

    Legal Proceedings

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Studies

    Chapter 9: Forensic Engineering

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Engineering Profession

    Forensic Engineer

    Forensic Engineering Case Studies

    Accident Reconstruction

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Study

    PART III: Patterns and Impressions

    Chapter 10: Fingerprints and Other Impressions

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction: A Note on Pattern Evidence

    Quest for a Reliable Method of Personal Identification

    Origin of Fingerprints

    Anatomy of Fingerprints

    Detection and Visualization of Fingerprints

    Comparison of Fingerprints

    Comparison of Single Fingerprints

    Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS and IAFIS)

    Common Questions about Fingerprints

    Other Impressions: Footwear and Tire Treads

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Studies

    Chapter 11: Questioned Documents

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    What Is a Questioned Document?

    Questioned Document Examiner

    Handwriting Analysis

    Erasures, Obliterations, and Alterations

    Typewriters, Photocopiers, and Computer Printers

    Paper Examination

    Ink Examinations

    Physical Matches on Torn Paper

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Studies

    Chapter 12: Firearms and Toolmarks

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Firearms Identification

    Anatomy of a Live Round (Cartridge)

    Examination of Firearms Evidence

    Digital Imaging Systems for Ammunition

    Distance-of-Fire Determinations

    Toolmarks

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Studies

    PART IV: Forensic Biology

    Chapter 13: Forensic Pathology

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    How to Become a Forensic Pathologist

    Investigation of Death: Coroners and Medical Examiners

    Death Investigation Process

    Postmortem Interval: Time of Death

    Exhumations

    Teamwork Approach

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Study

    Chapter 14: Anthropology and Odontology

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Human Skeleton

    Identification of Skeletal Remains

    Individualization of Human Bone

    Collection of Bones

    Forensic Odontology

    Summary

    Test It Yourself 1: Pelvic Bones and Age

    Test It Yourself 2: Bite Marks

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    Helpful Websites

    Case Studies

    Chapter 15: Forensic Palynology & Entomology

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Forensic Palynology: Pollen and Spores as Evidence

    Becoming a Forensic Entomologist

    PMI: The Life Cycle of the Blowfly

    Decomposition of a Body after Death

    Factors that Affect PMI

    Entomological Investigation and Evidence Collection

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Studies

    Chapter 16: Serology

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Blood

    Analysis of Blood

    Other Biological Fluids and Stains

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

    Summary

    Appendix A: Trigonometry Calculation for Locating a Bloodstain

    Try it Yourself: The Genetics of Blood Typing

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    Useful Websites

    Case Study

    Chapter 17: DNA Typing

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    What Is DNA?

    Collection and Preservation of DNA Evidence

    History of DNA Typing

    Current Method of DNA Typing: STRs

    Mitochondrial DNA

    CODIS

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Studies

     

    Chapter 18: Hair

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    What Is Hair?

    Hair Growth

    Hair Color

    Structure of Human Hair

    Human versus Nonhuman Hairs

    Hair Treatment and Damage

    Comparison of Human Hairs

    What Can Be Determined from the Structure of Hair?

    DNA Analysis of Hair

    Hair as a Source of Drugs

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Study

    PART V: Forensic Chemistry

    Chapter 19: Illicit Drugs

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Illicit Drugs

    Control of Illicit Drugs in the United States

    Analysis of Illicit Drugs

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Study

     

    Chapter 20: Forensic Toxicology

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Forensic Toxicology

    Becoming a Forensic Toxicologist

    Principles of Pharmacology

    Pharmacology and Toxicology of Ethyl Alcohol

    Absorption of Ethanol

    Drunk Driving Laws

    Field Sobriety Testing

    Measurement of BAC

    Driving Under the Influence of Drugs

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Study

    Chapter 21: Fibers, Paints, and Other Polymers

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    What Is a Polymer?

    Textile Fibers

    Types of Fibers

    Fiber Morphology

    Analysis of Synthetic Fibers

    Chemical Analysis of Fibers

    Interpretation of Fiber Evidence

    Paints and Other Coatings

    Types of Paint

    How Cars Are Painted

    Collection of Paint Evidence

    Analysis of Paint

    Evidentiary Value of Paint

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Studies

    Chapter 22: Glass and Soil

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronym

    Introduction

    Glass

    Glass as Forensic Evidence

    Soil

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Studies

    Chapter 23: Fires and Explosions

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    What Is a Fire?

    Extinguishing a Fire

    Incendiary Fires

    Investigation of a Fire

    Role of Accelerants

    Analysis of Fire Scene Evidence

    Analysis of Accelerants

    Explosions

    Investigation of Bombing Scenes

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Case Study

    PART VI: Additional Forensic Science Topics

    Chapter 24: Presentation of Forensic Evidence in Court

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    Admissibility of Evidence

    Forensic Laboratories: Accreditation, Certification and Laboratory Reporting

    Expert Testimony

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

    Chapter 25: Forensic Psychology

    Learning Objectives

    Mini Glossary

    Acronyms

    Introduction

    What is Forensic Psychology?

    Behavioral Evidence Analysis: The Truth About Profiling

    Treatment and Evaluation of Offenders

    Research

    Summary

    Test Yourself

    Further Reading

    On the Web

     

    Index

     

     

    Biography

    Kathy Mirakovits is currently the principle of Forensic Science Education Consulting, LLC, a training resource providing workshops across the United States for teachers who wish to learn the application of forensic science in a school curriculum. She is a now-retired teacher to taught forensic science and physics at Portage Northern High School in Portage, Michigan, and physics at Kalamazoo Valley Community College in Michigan. She holds an MS in science education from Western Michigan University. She taught general science, physical science, chemistry, biology, earth science, and physics at the high school and two-year college level for more than 25 years. She also conducts. She has developed numerous forensic science educational products and has led workshops at the National Science Teachers Association. Kathy has served as president of the Michigan Chapter of the American Association of Physics Teachers and as a curriculum writer for the Michigan Department of Education. She was previously the high school director for the Michigan Science Teachers Association. She received the RadioShack Science Teaching Award and was a state finalist for the Presidential Award for Excellence in Math and Science Teaching.

    Jay A. Siegel (Deceased) held a PhD in analytical chemistry from The George Washington University and received its Distinguished Faculty Scholar award in 2009. He worked as a forensic chemist with the Virginia Bureau of Forensic Sciences for three years before spending 25 years as a professor and director of the forensic science program in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. In 2003 he went to Indiana University–Purdue University as founder and director of the forensic and investigative sciences program in the School of Science. In 2008 he was named the chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. He retired in 2012 and, sadly, passed away in September 2017 at the age of 71. Dr. Siegel was the co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management: An International Journal and Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition, the co-author of Fundamentals of Forensic Science, and the author of Forensic Science: A Beginner’s Guide. He testified over 200 times in federal and military courts, and was named distinguished fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 2009.