Forever Chemicals : Environmental, Economic, and Social Equity Concerns with PFAS in the Environment book cover
1st Edition

Forever Chemicals
Environmental, Economic, and Social Equity Concerns with PFAS in the Environment

ISBN 9780367456405
Published July 29, 2021 by CRC Press
360 Pages 72 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Forever Chemicals: Environmental, Economic, and Social Equity Concerns with PFAS in the Environment provides the reader with an understanding of the complex and interwoven issues associated with per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) in our environment. The chapters provide in-depth perspective into various issues, including health, regulation, detection, clean-up strategies and technologies, and more. Taken together or as the reader’s interests lead them, the variety of topics covered in the book present a balanced perspective on this complex topic.

It will address the current state of PFAS and where indicators are pointing for future developments. The book is also a deeper investigation of the regulatory challenges, analytical hurdles, and toxicological progress to date for the suite of PFAS chemicals.


  • Explains the trends that will affect future policy and regulatory decisions
  • Looks holistically at 4000+ PFAS chemicals
  • Includes PFAS risk assessments at contaminated sites and biomonitoring insights
  • Provides in-depth discussions on remediation technologies
  • Illustrates quality and diversified content
  • Provides a balanced perspective on this complex topic

Table of Contents

Section I – Social Concerns


Chapter 1 PFAS: Today and Tomorrow

LeeAnn Racz and David M. Kempisty

Chapter 2 Fluorine Free Foams: A Transition Guide

Ian Ross, Peter Storch, Ted Schaefer, and Niall Ramsden

Chapter 3 PFAS in Consumer Products: Exposures and Regulatory Approaches

Simona Andrea Balan and Qingyu Meng

Chapter 4 Regulatory Implications of PFAS

J. Alan Roberson

Chapter 5 The Analytical Conundrum

Taryn McKnight

Chapter 6 Landfills as Sources of PFAS Contamination in Soil and Groundwater

Nanthi Bolan, Yubo Yan, Sammani Ramanayaka, P. Koliyabandara, Gayathri Chamanee, Raj Mukhopadhyay, Binoy Sarkar, Hasintha Wijesekara,Meththika Vithanage, and M.B. Kirkham


Section II – Toxicology and Epidemiology


Chapter 7 Exposure to PFAS: Biomonitoring Insights

Kayoko Kato, Julianne Cook Botelho, and Antonia M. Calafat

Chapter 8 State of the Science for Risk Assessment of PFAS at Contaminated Sites

Jeanmarie M. Zodrow, Jennifer Anne Arblaster, and Jason Conder


Section III – Remediation


Chapter 9 Advances in Remediation of PFAS-impacted Waters

John Anderson, Pingping Meng, Tim Sidnell, and Ian Ross

Chapter 10 Effectiveness of Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry Systems to Remove PFAS from Drinking Water

Craig Patterson, Jonathan B. Burkhardt, Donald Schupp, E. Radha Krishnan, Stephen Dyment, Steven Merritt, Lawrence Zintek, and Danielle Kleinmaler

Chapter 11 Removing PFAS from Water: From Start to Finish

Caitlin Berretta, Tom Mallmann, Kyle Trewitz, and David M. Kempisty

Chapter 12 Rapid Removal of PFAS from Investigation-derived Waste (IDW) in a Pilot-scale Plasma Reactor

Raj Kamal Singh, Nicholas Multari, Chase Nau-Hix, Richard H. Anderson, Stephen D. Richardson, Thomas M. Holsen, and Selma Mededovic Thagard

Chapter 13 Recent Advances in Oxidation and Reduction Processes for Treatment of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Water

Yaal Lester

Chapter 14 Novel Cyclodextrin Polymer Adsorbents for PFAS Removal

Yuhan Ling, Michael T. Payne, Shan Li, and Matthew J. Notter

Chapter 15 Modeling Water Treatment Performance and Costs for Removal of PFAS from Drinking Water

Jonathan B. Burkhardt, Richard H. Anderson, Rajiv Khera, Levi M. Haupert, Patrick Ransom, David G. Wahman, Page Jordan, Jonathan G. Pressman, Marc A. Mills, and Thomas F. Speth



E-Resource Chapters available at


Chapter E1 Forever Chemicals: A Historical Perspective

Joseph DiMisa

Chapter E2 Toxicity Reference Values for Wildlife Exposed to PFAS

Mark S. Johnson, Michael I. Quinn, Jr., Marc A. Williams, and Allison M. Narizzano

Chapter E3 PFAS Fate and Transport in the Environment

Ian Ross and Tim Sidnell

Chapter E4 Risk-based Cost-benefit Analysis of Intervention Alternatives for PFAS-contaminated Groundwater

Fiona Laramay, Diego Nocetti, and Michelle Crimi

Chapter E5 Life Cycle Assessment of Alternative PFAS Treatment Solutions for Contaminated Groundwater

Isaac Emery, David M. Kempisty, Brittany Fain, and Eric Mbonimpa

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David M. Kempisty is Senior Business Development Manager for Emerging Contaminants at Evoqua Water Technologies. He is a licensed engineer focusing on PFAS and contaminant removal technologies. As a member of Evoqua’s Environmental Solutions Technology and Innovation Team, he is involved with bench- and pilot-scale testing of activated carbons, ionic exchange resins, novel adsorbents, and innovative technologies. Prior to joining Evoqua, Dr. Kempisty served 22 years in the United States Air Force as a bioenvironmental engineer in a variety of capacities around the globe. As director of the Air Force graduate school’s Environmental Engineering and Science Program, his research investigated per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and included toxicological studies, remedial investigations, and life cycle considerations of treatment alternatives. His research was recognized with awards from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development in 2017 and 2018. Dave earned his PhD from the University of Colorado-Boulder in Civil and Environmental Engineering in 2014 where he focused on removal of PFAS from groundwater using granular activated carbon. Dr. Kempisty earned his MS from the Air Force Institute of Technology and his BS from Michigan Technological University. Dr. Kempisty was lead editor of the text, Perfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment, published in 2018, and has authored over 25 peer-reviewed papers and presentations on a variety of environmental topics. He maintains active memberships to multiple local and national professional organizations.


LeeAnn Racz is President and Founder of ClearView Environmental Engineering and Consulting, LLC, providing environmental and occupational health services to clients around the world. Prior to this initiative, she served for 23 years as a bioenvironmental engineer and civil engineer in the US Air Force. Some highlights of Dr. Racz’s military assignments include squadron commander, chief of consultative services at the US Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, director of the Graduate Environmental Engineering and Science Program at the Air Force Institute of Technology. Dr. Racz is a licensed professional engineer, certified industrial hygienist, and board-certified environmental engineer. She earned a BS in environmental engineering from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, an MS in biological and agricultural engineering from the University of Idaho, and a PhD in civil and environmental engineering from the University of Utah. She has authored dozens of refereed journal articles, conference proceedings, magazine articles, and presentations, and edited six handbooks. Dr. Racz is a member of several professional organizations and honor societies and has received numerous prestigious teaching and research awards.