Foundations and Practice of Research: Adventures with Dooyeweerd's Philosophy, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Foundations and Practice of Research

Adventures with Dooyeweerd's Philosophy, 1st Edition

By Andrew Basden

Routledge

304 pages

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Hardback: 9781138720688
pub: 2019-08-23
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Description

Many of the issues on which meaningful research is founded are seldom discussed; for example, the role of everyday experience, diversity and coherence of meaning in the world, the meaningfulness and wider mandate of research, the very nature and validity of theoretical thought, and the deep presuppositions of philosophy and how they undermine the success of research.

Such questions are material to the philosophies that guide research thinking in all fields, and since they cannot be satisfactorily addressed in a piecemeal fashion, this book employs the radically different philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd to consider them together. Parts I and II discuss these issues theoretically and philosophically, while Part III discusses them practically, specifically the adventures that researchers across the world have had using Dooyeweerd's philosophy.

Foundations and Practice of Research assembles a wide range of experiences of using Dooyeweerd's philosophy in research in the fields of mathematics, the natural sciences, the social sciences, design sciences and the humanities. Case studies demonstrate how Dooyeweerd's philosophy has been found fruitful in most stages of research, and the philosophical discussion backs this up. This book challenges researchers to join the adventures, including suggestions of potential research that could be carried out, as well as questions still left unanswered.

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1. Introduction

1-1. ADVENTURES WITH DOOYEWEERD'S PHILOSOPHY

1-2. RESEARCH

1-2.1 The Mandate of Research

1-2.2 Clarifying Concepts Used in This Book

1-2.3 Some Requirements for Research

1-2.4 Research Content, Activity and Application

1-2.5 Range of Fields

1-3. PRACTICE

1-4. FOUNDATIONS

1-4.1 Foundations of Research

1-4.2 Philosophy

1-4.3 Dooyeweerd and Philosophy

1-4.4 Resources

1-5. GUIDE FOR READERS

1-5.1 The Structure of the Book

1-5.2 Some Tips on Reading

PART I

Chapter 2. Research and Everyday Experience

2-1. SOME PRELIMINARIES

2-1.1 Differences Between Research and Everyday Experience

2-1.2 Relationships Between Research and Everyday Experience

2-2. THE RESEARCHER-WORLD RELATIONSHIPS: DETACHED OR PARTICIPANT OBSERVER?

2-2.1 Is Detached Observer Possible?

2-2.2 Is Detached Observer Desirable?

2-2.3 Dooyeweerd's View of the Researcher-World Relationship

2-3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEORETICAL AND PRE-THEORETICAL THINKING

2-3.1 Is Neutral Theoretical Thinking Desirable?

2-3.2 Is Neutral Theoretical Thinking Possible?

2-3.3 Dooyeweerd's View of Theoretical and Pre-theoretical Thinking

2-4. THE VALUE OF THEORETICAL AND PRE-THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

2-5. UNDERSTANDING EVERYDAY, PRE-THEORETICAL EXPERIENCE

2-5.1 Interest in Everyday Experience

2-5.2 Appealing to Everyday Experience

2-5.3 Starting with Everyday Experience

2-6. EVERYDAY EXPERIENCE AND RESEARCH

2-6.1 The Everyday Experience of Applying Research

2-6.2 Research Activity as Everyday Experience

2-6.3 Everyday Experience in Research Content

2-7. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 3. Diversity and Coherence

3-1. A PHILOSOPHICAL LOOK AT DIVERSITY AND COHERENCE

3-2. DOOYEWEERD'S ASPECTS

3-2.1 An Initial Look At Diversity

3-2.2 Aspects as Modes

3-2.3 Irreducibility of Aspects

3-2.4 Inter-aspect Coherence

3-2.4.1 Aspectual simultaneity

3-2.4.2 No conflict among aspects

3-2.4.3 Inter-aspect analogy

3-2.4.4 Inter-aspect dependency

3-2.4.5 The Order of Aspects

3-3. DIVERSITY AND COHERENCE OF RESEARCH ACTIVITY

3-4. DIVERSITY AND COHERENCE OF RESEARCH APPLICATION

3-5. DIVERSITY AND COHERENCE IN RESEARCH CONTENT (THEORIES)

3-5.1 Diversity and Coherence of Research Fields

3-5.2 Diversity and Coherence of Data Collected in Research

3-5.3 Diversity and Coherence Within Concepts

3-5.4 Diversity and Coherence in Research Findings / Theories

3-6. CONCLUSION

Chapter 4. Meaning in Research and Reality, and an Overview of Dooyeweerd's Understanding of Reality

4-1. PRELIMINARIES

4-2. TREATMENT OF MEANING IN PHILOSOPHY

4-3. MEANINGFULNESS AS THE FOUNDATION FOR ONTOLOGY, EPISTEMOLOGY AND AXIOLOGY

4-3.1 Diversity and Coherence of Meaning

4-3.2 Aspects: Spheres of Meaningfulness

4-3.3 Meaningfulness as the Ground of Being

4-3.4 Types and Identity

4-3.5 Structural Relationships

4-3.6 Meaning and Rationality

4-3.7 Meaning, Value and Good

4-3.8 Law, Functioning and Repercussion

4-3.8.1 Law: the possibility of functioning and repercussion

4-3.8.2 Multi-aspectual functioning

4-3.8.3 Society, progress and meaningfulness

4-3.8.4 Meaningful properties and functional relationships

4-3.9 Subject and Object in Terms of Meaningfulness and Law

4-3.10 Prior Meaningfulness and the Metaphor of Ocean

4-3.11 Towards a Model of Meaning

4-3.11.1 The proposed model

4-3.11.2 Application to philosophy

4-3.12 Meaningfulness and Knowing the World

4-3.13 Knowing Meaningfulness Itself: Delineating the Aspects

4-3.14 Meaning, Time and Self

4-4. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE FOR RESEARCH

4-4.1 Meaningfulness and Research Application

4-4.2. Meaningfulness and Research Activity

4-4.3 Meaning and Research Content

4-5. CONCLUSION

Chapter 5. Research and Philosophy

5-1. ROLES OF PHILOSOPHY IN RESEARCH

5-1.1 Ontology, Epistemology and Axiology

5-1.2 Philosophy as Approach

5-1.3 Philosophy as Foundation

5-1.4 Philosophy as Source of Conceptual Tools and Methods

5-2. LEVELS OF PRESUPPOSITION

5-2.1 Worldviews

5-2.2 Ground-motives

5-2.3 Ground-motives as Presuppositions not Truths

5-2.4 Differences Between Dialectical and Pluralist Ground-motives

5-3. STANDPOINTS

5-3.1 Problems Resulting from the Immanence Standpoint

5-3.2 Alternative Standpoints

5-3.3 Towards a Different Standpoint

5-4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOOYEWEERD'S PHILOSOPHY

5-4.1 Struggles with the Immanence Standpoint

5-4.2 Seeking a "Christian" Philosophy

5-4.3 Fresh Insights for Research

5-5. CROSSING RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY BOUNDARIES

5-6. CONCLUSION

PART II

Chapter 6. On Theoretical Knowledge and Research

6-1. THE CHALLENGE OF TRUTH

6-1.1 Realism and Anti-Realism: Is There Generic Truth?

6-1.2 About Truth

6-1.3 Dooyeweerd's Critique of Truth

6-2. ON THE NON-NEUTRALITY OF THEORETICAL THOUGHT

6-2.1 Dooyeweerd's Immanent Critique of Theoretical Thought

6-2.2 Dooyeweerd's Transcendental Critiques of Theoretical Thought

6-3. DOOYEWEERD'S SECOND TRANSCENDENTAL CRITIQUE OF THEORETICAL THOUGHT

6-3.1 Preparing to Understand the Transcendental Problems

6-3.2 The Starting Question

6-3.3 First Transcendental Problem (TP1), Abstraction: Thinker and Diversity of World

6-3.4 Second Transcendental Problem (TP2), Reuniting That Which Was Set Asunder: Rationalities and Responsibility

6-3.5 Third Transcendental Problem (TP3), Grounds of Critical Self-Reflection: Origin of Meaning

6-3.6 Ground-motives as Origins of Meaning

6-3.7 Summary

6-4. DOOYEWEERD'S PERSPECTIVE ON TRUTH

6-5. CONCLUSION

Chapter 7. Ground-Ideas: How Philosophies Work

7-1. DOOYEWEERD'S NOTION OF THREE-PART GROUND-IDEA

7-1.1 Ground-Ideas of Philosophy: A Tool for LACE

7-1.2 Diversity of World

7-1.2.1 Data from the world

7-1.2.2 On sources of data

7-1.2.3 Secondary data and use of instruments

7-1.3 Coherence of Rationalities

7-1.4 Wider Meaningfulness and Origin of Meaning

7-1.5 Ground-Idea Analysis: Example from Sociolinguistics

7-1.6 Reflection

7-2. ON PROGRESS AND ADVANCE IN KNOWLEDGE

7-2.1 Clarification Offered by the Notion of Ground-Idea

7-2.2 Accounts of Dialectic

7-3. GROUND-IDEAS A BASIS FOR DIALOGUE

7-3.1 An Example: Positivist, Interpretivist and Socio-critical Approaches

7-3.2 Reflection

7-4. APPLICATIONS OF GROUND-IDEAS IN RESEARCH PROJECTS

7-4.1 Ground-Ideas as Research Philosophy

7-4.2 On Bias in Research

7-5. CONCLUSION

Chapter 8. Fields of Research

8-1. UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH FIELDS AND DISCIPLINES

8-1.1 Some Approaches

8-1.2 Fields as Centred on Aspects

8-1.3 Secondary Aspects

8-1.4 Wider Meaningfulness: Applications and Interdisciplinary Research

8-1.5 Conclusions About Fields

8-2. ON PARADIGMS

8-2.1 The Idea of Paradigm

8-2.2 A Dooyeweerdian View: Paradigms as Meaningfulness

8-2.3 An Example: Linguistics and Sociolinguistics

8-3. CONCEPTS AND IDEAS IN A FIELD

8-4. CONCLUSION

PART III

Chapter 9. Dooyeweerd's Suite of Aspects

9-1. DESCRIPTION OF EACH ASPECT

9-1.1 The Quantitative Aspect

9-1.2 The Spatial Aspect

9-1.3 The Kinematic Aspect

9-1.4 The Physical Aspect

9-1.5 The Organic / Biotic Aspect

9-1.6 The Psychic / Sensitive Aspect

9-1.7 The Analytical Aspect

9-1.8 The Formative Aspect

9-1.9 The Lingual Aspect

9-1.10 The Social Aspect

9-1.11 The Economic Aspect

9-1.12 The Aesthetic Aspect

9-1.13 The Juridical Aspect

9-1.14 The Ethical Aspect

9-1.15 The Pistic Aspect

9-2. GROUPING THE ASPECTS?

9-3. COMPARISON WITH OTHER SUITES

9-4. ON TRUSTING DOOYEWEERD'S SUITE

9-5. CONCLUSION

Chapter 10. The Complex Activity of Research

10-1. OVERALL APPROACH: "LACE"

10-1.1 The Elements of LACE

10-1.2 Example of LACE with Information Systems Approaches

10-1.3 Examples of LACE with Foundations of Information Systems

10-2. RESEARCH AS MULTI-ASPECTUAL FUNCTIONING

10-3. THE MORE VISIBLE ASPECTS OF RESEARCH ACTIVITY

10-4. SOME LESS-OBVIOUS ASPECTS OF RESEARCH ACTIVITY

10-4.1 Less-obvious Pistic Functioning in Research

10-4.2 Less-obvious Ethical Aspects in the Activity of Research

10-4.3 Less-obvious Juridical Functioning in Research

10-4.4 Less-obvious Aesthetic Functioning in the Activity of Research

10-4.5 Less-obvious Economic Functioning in Research

10-4.6 Less-obvious Social Functioning in Research

10-4.7 Less-obvious Lingual, Formative and Analytic Functioning in Research

10-4.8 The Early Aspectual Functioning in Research

10-5. A CASE STUDY: ACTIVITIES IN A KNOWLEDGE PROJECT

10-6. CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 11. Experience of Research Using Dooyeweerd

11-1. STAGES OF RESEARCH USING DOOYEWEERD

11-2. UNDERSTANDING THE DISCOURSES AND LITERATURE OF A FIELD WITH DOOYEWEERD

11-2.1 Methods Involving Ground-motives

11-2.2 Joneidy's Analysis of Seminal Papers

11-2.3 Understanding Collections of Papers

11-2.4 More Complex Inter-Discourse Analysis

11-2.4.1 Breems' study

11-2.4.2 Basden's study

11-2.4.3 Reflection on heatmaps

11-3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS: DOOYEWEERDIAN ADVENTURES AMONG PARADIGMS

11-3.1 Critique of Paradigms in Statistics

11-3.2 Paradigms and Frameworks in Systems Thinking

11-3.3 A Multi-aspectual Paradigm in Sustainability

11-3.4 A New Paradigm of the State and Civil Society

11-3.5 New Paradigm in Knowledge Management and Tacit Knowledge

11-3.6 New Paradigms and Frameworks in the Information Systems Field

11-3.6.1 ISD: Information systems development, including programming

11-3.6.2 IT features

11-3.6.3 IT/IS use

11-3.6.4 IT and society

11-3.6.5 Nature of information and computers

11-3.7 Broadening Paradigms in Engineering

11-3.8 Reflection

11-4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS: CLARIFYING CONCEPTS AND IDEAS

11-4.1 Understanding a 'Simple' Concept: Diagrams

11-4.2 Exploring a More Complex Concept: Idolatry

11-4.3 Multi-aspectual Concepts: Information, Documents

11-4.4 Complex Notions Inforporating Antecipations and Retrocipations

11-4.5 Contributing Ideas to Philosophy

11-5. USING DOOYEWEERD TO DISCUSS RESEARCH METHODS

11-6. DATA COLLECTION WITH DOOYEWEERD

11-6.1 Using Aspects to Design Questionnaires

11-6.2 MAKE: Multi-aspectual Knowledge Elicitation

11-6.3 MAIT: Multi-aspectual Interview Technique

11-6.4 Practical Reflections on MAKE and MAIT

11-6.5 Philosophical Reflections on MAKE and MAIT

11-6.6 Eliciting Detailed Expertise

11-7. USING DOOYEWEERD IN DATA ANALYSIS

11-7.1 Simple Aspectual Analysis

11-7.2 Finding Hidden Meanings: What Motivated Seminal Papers

11-7.2.1 The method

11-7.2.2 Results

11-7.2.3 Challenges

11-7.3 Researching Everyday Down-to-earth Issues

11-7.3.1 The first study

11-7.3.2 The second and third studies

11-7.3.3 Quantitative and qualitative analyses

11-7.3.4 Comparative analyses

11-7.3.5 The value of extra, volunteered information

11-7.3.6 The literature versus everyday experience

11-7.3.7 Reflection on aspectual analysis of down-to-earth issues

11-7.4 Complex Quantitative Comparisons

11-7.5 Complex Qualitative Comparisons

11-7.6 Overview

11-8. EXTENDING THESE IDEAS: NEW ADVENTURES AWAITED

11-8.1 Using Dooyeweerd at Beginning and End of Research

11-8.2 Using Dooyeweerd in Observation

11-8.3 Using Dooyeweerd in Natural and Mathematical Sciences

11-9. CONCLUSION

PART IV

CHAPTER 12. Criticisms of Dooyeweerd

12-1. CRITICISMS OF DOOYEWEERD'S IDEAS

12-1.1 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's Approach to Everyday Experience

12-1.2 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's View of Non-Neutrality or Non-Autonomy of Theoretical Thought

12-1.3 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's Approach to Diversity and Coherence

12-1.4 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's Idea of Meaning(fulness)

12-1.5 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's Notion of Being as Meaningfulness

12-1.6 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's idea of Good and Evil

12-1.7 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's idea of Aspectual Functioning

12-1.8 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's View of History and Progress

12-1.9 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's View of Ground-motives

12-1.10 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's Idea of the Immanence Standpoint

12-1.11 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's Transcendental Critiques of Theoretical Thought

12-1.12 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's idea of Antithesis between Christian and Non-Christian Thought

12-1.13 Critiques of Dooyeweerd's Aspects

12-2. REFLECTION

Chapter 13. Summary and Conclusions

13-1. SUMMARY OF CONTRIBUTIONS TO RESEARCH

13-1.1 Overall Benefits

13-1.2 Contributions to Research Content

13-1.3 Contributions to Research Activity

13-1.4 Contributions to Research Application

13-2. THE CHANGING WORLD OF RESEARCH

13-3. COVERAGE OF DOOYEWEERD'S PHILOSOPHY

13-4. THE ADVENTURE IS JUST BEGINNING

References

Index

About the Author

Andrew Basden is Professor of Human Factors and Philosophy in Information Systems at the University of Salford, UK. He has been active in research for 40 of the past 50 years, informed by 12 years of professional practice.

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BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
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BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / General
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BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Decision-Making & Problem Solving
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