This book presents the 1986 Kiel Conference papers together with written comments. The papers have two unifying themes which are expounded in a variety of ways—the nature and causes of restrictive trade policies, and the consequences of those policies.
I. The Problem 1. Why Trade Is Not Free: Is There a Clash between Theory and Practice? 2. Swings between Protection and Free Trade in History 3. Trade Barriers: Who Does What to Whom II. Protection in Industrial Countries 4. United States Trade Policy: From Multilateralism to Bilateralism? 5. Japan's Trade Policies 6. Protection in Germany: Toward Industrial Selectivity III. Trade Liberalization and Economic Development 7. Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Growth in Developing Countries 8. Handmaiden under Harassment: The Multi-Fibre Arrangement as an Obstacle to Development 9. The Impact of EEC Trade Policies on Developing Countries IV. Strategic Issues in Protection 10. Industrial Targeting: Defensive or Offensive Strategies in a Neo-Schumpeterian Perspective 11. The Political Economy of U.S. Protection 12. The Political Economy of Revaluation-Induced Protectionism under Discretionary Monetary Regimes with Flexible Exchange Rates V. Completing and Opening the Common Market 13. Liberalization of Product Markets in the European Community 14. Trade in Services within the European Community 15. Integration of Financial Markets in Europe 16. How to Open the Common Agricultural Market VI. Towards Freer Trade 17. Trade Liberalization within the GATT Framework? 18. Alternative Liberalization Strategies VII. Conclusion 19. The Causes of Protection: From Economic to Historical Determinism?