This book is an in-depth study of air and ocean goods-in-transit claims. It sets out to guide and assist businesses within the fresh produce industry to successfully implement the best processes and procedures to maximise their recovery efforts against contracted carriers.
Fresh Produce Shipping focuses heavily on protecting the rights and recovery aspects of companies involved in growing, selling, and transporting fresh produce. It gives importers, exporters, loss adjusters, surveyors, and freight forwarders an easy-to-understand guide to the management and requirements of submitting claims. It provides an overview of the shipping terms and procedures involved when raising a claim. The book offers specific and detailed industry knowledge to stakeholders who would not normally have access to such information without the employment of specialists or legal counsel, providing an inexperienced reader with the tools to submit a claim and achieve an understanding of protocol.
A valuable guide and comprehensive reference for parties seeking compensation for lost or damaged goods, this book will be of relevance to shippers and importers of fresh produce, lawyers acting for commercial clients and underwriters, cargo surveyors, trade bodies around the world representing fresh produce operators, and forwarders wishing to support their clients.
Table of Contents
Dedication; Acknowledgements; Foreword; Table of Cases; Definitions; Introduction; Chapter 1 - An Overview of the Claims Process ; The Loss; Air; Ocean; The Strategy to be adopted; Chapter 2 - An Overview of the Legal Framework for Air Cargo and Ocean Cargo Liability; Air; Ocean; Hamburg Rules; Chapter 3 – Detailed Actions after Discovery of the Loss ; The Question of Abandonment ; Delivery Signatures on Collection and Receipt; Air Cargo; Ocean Cargo; Claim Notification & Invitation to Carrier to attend Survey; Air; Salvage and Mitigation; Survey & Investigation; Joint and Separate Surveys; Air; Ocean; Common Causes; Air; Temperature Abuse; Delay; Ocean; Temperature Abuse; Suffocation and CO2 Injury; Delay; Evidencing the container loading; Pre-Shipment Condition and Temperature; Shelf-life tests; The Relevance of Pre-Shipment Evidence; Trip Thermographs; Air; Ocean; Analysis of Transit History; Determination of Cause; Air; Ocean; Chapter 4 - Documentation Gathering; Booking Request and Carrier confirmation (Ocean only); Supplier Invoice; Packing List or Load List; Health Documents; Certificate of Origin, Movement Certificate EUR.1; Air Waybill; Air Cargo Consolidations and House Air Waybills; Ocean Bills of Lading and Sea Waybills; House Bills of Lading; Airline Release Note, Removal Authority, or Airline Delivery Order; Goods Inwards Records; 1st Inspections/Quality Control Records and Photographs; The Surveyor’s Report; Chapter 5 – The Legal Rules determining for What you can Claim; The Central Principle of Restitutio in Integrum; Attempts to derogate from this principle; Damages in Contract and Damages in Tort; Interest on Damages; Duty to Mitigate; Date for Assessment; Chapter 6 - Calculation of Constituent Claim Values; ASMV- Arrived-Sound Market Value; Proof of Arrived-Sound Market Value; The ‘Supermarket Market’; The ‘Wholesale Market’; Sales Price Lists; ADMV – Arrived-Damaged Market Value; Cost-based quantum; Directly-Related Expenses; Survey Fee; Sorting/Repacking; Dumping Costs and Certification; Other Possible Costs; Chapter 7 - Claim Submission; Covering Letter; Presentation Standards & Well-ordered Attachments; Submission of Claims by email; Other methods of claim submission – Air Cargo Claims; If by Post, obtain Recorded Delivery and why; Ask yourself?; Chapter 8 - Time Limits and Time Bar Protection; Time Limits; Air Cargo; Ocean Cargo; Time Bars; Air; Ocean Cargo; Chapter 9 - The Struggle For Settlement; Unreasonably-Delayed Responses & Refusal to Deal; The Burden and Onus of Proof; Delay not involving Physical Damage; Air Cargo; The Central Principle of a Carrier’s Liability under Applicable Law; Aspects of entitlement to claim and sue; Cessions of Rights; In relation to House Air Waybills; Objections to Quantum; The ‘Market’; Survey Fees; All other expenses; Defences – and Countering them; Contributory Negligence; Pre-Shipment Causes; Harvest Records; Pack House Protocols; ‘Hot Stuffing’ - Ocean; ‘Hot Delivery’ – Air; Mixed Maturity; Rots, and Diseases; Thermographs; Reefer container Inspection; Vent Closure and Suffocation/CO2 injury; Failures during Transit; Inadequate packing; Inadequate stowage in an Ocean container; Post Shipment Objections; Attempts to reject claims on dis-entitlement; Air Cargo; The Grounds for a Claim; Force Majeure issues; Successive Carriage; US-Based Airlines and the ‘3-day rule’; Limitation of Liability; Enforcement of these Rules; Ocean Cargo; Attempts to reject claims on dis-entitlement; The Grounds for the Claim; Shipper’s Responsibility for container Settings; Inadequate Stowage; Carrier’s Datalogger – if it can be obtained; Malfunctioning containers and ‘Due Diligence’; Measure of Damages; Limitation of Liability; Unreasonable Attitudes and Commercial ‘Strong-Arm’ Tactics; Field-Heat Argument; Improper Use of Authorities; ‘Strong-Arm Tactics’; Refusal to Produce Evidence; Being ‘Taken to the Wire’; Further Carrier Tactics after Issue of Proceedings; Dismissal of Evidence; Excessive Demands for Evidence; Mixed Maturity; Carrier’s Claims, Operational, and Marketing Personnel at Odds?; Chapter 10 - Reaching for Settlements; Without prejudice negotiations; Dispute Resolution; Ocean Carriers’ P&I Clubs; Jurisdiction; Air; Ocean; Solicitors and Litigation; Choice of Lawyers; Broad Outline of events during Litigation with Costs implications; Pre -Legal Action; Legal Action; Part 36 offers; Preparation for Trial; Trial; Costs Awards; Withdrawing at Any Stage; Annexes; Examples of claim notices; Air Claim Notice; Ocean Claim Notice; Non-Survey Claim Notice; Claim Submission covering letter or message; Air Claim; Ocean Claim; Excel Spreadsheet to show quantum; Cession of Rights wording; Air; Ocean; Schedules; Air; Montreal Convention; Warsaw/Hague; Warsaw [unamended]; IATA 600b Air Waybill; Conditions; Ocean; Hague; Hague/Visby; Hamburg
Rex C. Tester spent two years with Pan Am as an aircraft loader from 1969 and transferred to the Cargo Division in 1971. For the next three years he worked in Cargo Operations and became a certified loadmaster. In 1974, he was entrusted with Pan Am’s European cargo claims. In 1983, he became independent, and has worked on all aspects of ocean and air cargo claims, including surveying and investigations at all levels.
"Fresh Produce Shipping provides a "go to guide" for Importers / Exporters, Loss adjusters, Fresh Produce Surveyors, students with an interest in Fresh Produce shipping and claims handling, by providing a comprehensive realistic understanding of the market inan easy to understand text. The book provides a step by step understanding of the claims handling process covering both Airline and Ocean shipments providing reference guides and an understanding of the various conventions relevant to both forms of shipping." -- Victoria Bredin, British Association of Cargo Surveyors