1st Edition

Friction-Induced Vibrations and Self-Organization Mechanics and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Sliding Contact

By Michael Nosonovsky, Vahid Mortazavi Copyright 2014
    333 Pages 11 Color & 102 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    333 Pages 11 Color & 102 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Many scientists and engineers do not realize that, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in situ tribofilms and various patterns. In turn, these structures—usually formed by destabilization of the stationary sliding regime—can lead to the reduction of friction and wear. Friction-Induced Vibrations and Self-Organization: Mechanics and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Sliding Contact combines the mechanical and thermodynamic methods in tribology, thus extending the field of mechanical friction-induced vibrations to non-mechanical instabilities and self-organization processes at the frictional interface. The book also relates friction-induced self-organization to novel biomimetic materials, such as self-lubricating, self-cleaning, and self-healing materials.

    Explore Friction from a Different Angle—as a Fundamental Force of Nature

    The book begins with an exploration of friction as a fundamental force of nature throughout the history of science. It then introduces general concepts related to vibrations, instabilities, and self-organization in the bulk of materials and at the interface. After presenting the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics as they apply to the interface, the book formulates the laws of friction and highlights important implications. The authors also analyze wear and lubrication. They then turn their attention to various types of friction-induced vibration, and practical situations and applications where these vibrations are important. The final chapters consider various types of friction-induced self-organization and how these effects can be used for novel self-lubricating, self-cleaning, and self-healing materials.

    From Frictional Instabilities to Friction-Induced Self-Organization

    Drawing on the authors’ original research, this book presents a new, twenty-first century perspective on friction and tribology. It shows how friction-induced instabilities and vibrations can lead to self-organized structures, and how understanding the structure–property relationships that lead to self-organization is key to designing "smart" biomimetic materials.

    Introduction: Friction as a Fundamental Force of Nature in the History of Mechanics
    Historical Background
    Certain Philosophical Concepts of Mechanics
    Hilbert’s Sixth Problem
    Noll’s Axiomatic Mechanics
    P. Zhilin’s Approach
    The Study of Friction

    Vibrations and Stability at the Bulk and at the Interface
    Linear Vibrations in Systems with Single, Multiple, and Infinite Number of Degrees of Freedom
    Stability Analysis
    Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis
    Bifurcations, Catastrophes, and Chaos
    Multi-Scale Systems
    Self-Organization: Different Types
    Example: Benard Cells
    Self-Organization in Tribology
    Asymptotic Transition from a 3D (Bulk) to a 2D (Interface) System

    Principles of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Friction
    Thermodynamic Potentials and Equations
    Irreversible Processes and Non-Equilibrium
    Extremal Principles and Stability of Frictional Motion
    Stability Criterion for Frictional Sliding

    Fundamentals of Friction
    Empirical Laws of Friction
    Mechanisms of Friction
    Non-Linear Character of Friction
    Thermodynamics of Friction

    Wear and Lubrication
    Mechanisms of Wear
    Empirical Laws of Wear
    Thermodynamics of Wear: Entropy Generation and Degradation
    Lubricated Contact

    Friction-Induced Instabilities and Vibrations
    Mechanics of Elastic Contact and Stability of Frictional Sliding
    Velocity Dependency of Coefficient of Friction and Stability Criterion
    Thermoelastic Instabilities
    Adams–Martins Instabilities
    Radiation of Elastic Waves by Friction
    Interaction of Elastic Waves with Friction
    Friction Reduction and Self-Organized Patterns due to Friction-Induced Vibrations

    Friction-Induced Vibrations and Their Applications
    Brakes and Vehicles
    Music and Sound Generation

    From Frictional Instabilities to Friction-Induced Self-Organization
    Self-Organization, Instabilities, and Friction
    Stability of Frictional Sliding with Coefficient of Friction Dependent on Temperature
    Running-In as a Self-Organized Process
    Frictional Turing Systems
    Modeling of the Formation of Tribofilms
    Stick–Slip Motion and Self-Organization

    Principles of Self-Healing and Self-Lubricating Materials
    Various Approaches to Self-Lubrication




    Michael Nosonovsky is an assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He received his M.Sc. from St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia, and his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Northeastern University, Boston. He has also worked at Ohio State University and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Michael’s interests include biomimetic surfaces, capillary effects, nanotribology, and friction-induced self-organization.

    Vahid Mortazavi is a doctoral student at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He received his M.Sc. from Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, Iran. Vahid’s research interests include friction, tribology, and heat transfer.

    "The approach when friction is treated as a fundamental force of nature is definitely novel and very general. The relationship between friction-induced instabilities and friction-induced self-organization discussed in the book is an important topic ... . Much progress has been achieved in the field in the last decade and the book, reviewing the state of the art in the field, will be useful for a broad range of experts in the field of tribology. I also should emphasize the detailed treatment of self-healing materials in the book in the context of tribology, which is one of the hottest topics in the modern material science."
    —Edward Bormashenko, Ariel University, Israel

    "The book by Nosonovsky and Mortazavi presents a novel and intriguing approach to the studies of friction. The authors start with basic principles of non-linear dynamics and self-organization and apply them for analysis of friction in a daring attempt to deduce this phenomenon from general thermodynamics of non-equilibrium states. The authors succeeded to achieve clear and deep theory that, in particular, provides an interpretation of the events observed in recent experiments and explains a wide class of effects induced by friction."
    —Eugene Kagan, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

    "While friction has been a largely discussed topic in different fields of science and engineering, there are lots of theoretical and practical questions that remain unanswered. This book takes a new theoretical approach in relating friction to very fundamental laws of nature. Hence, the book tries to show how real practical cases work under such theoretical observations. The book shows a very interesting combination of theoretical observations and practical necessities."
    —Pradeep L. Menezes, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA