Friction and the Hot Rolling of Steel  book cover
1st Edition

Friction and the Hot Rolling of Steel

ISBN 9781138077171
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
239 Pages 139 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

When it comes to metal rolling, understanding and controlling frictional phenomena is essential to improving product and developing a more effective approach to friction reduction. Providing a historical perspective that goes as far back as the days of Leonardo da Vinci and continues up until the present day, Friction and the Hot Rolling of Steel chronicles the fundamental causes of friction. This book includes well-documented, on-site observations in various commercial plants, presents and examines practical problems, and provides a critical analysis of literary data related to the subject.

It explains the base mechanisms of friction, and offers insight and instruction on improving the control and understanding of friction in hot strip mills and other industrial plants. The text presents mathematical models of friction in control and general engineering in a way that enables engineers to test and refine them in their plants. Engineers have the ability to use them to control friction and minimize its negative effects, particularly as it relates to energy waste and product defects.

Organized into four sections, this book outlines the evolutional concepts of friction, and covers the general phenomena relevant to the rolling of metals. This includes the impact of roughness and velocity, basics of liquid and solid lubrication, mathematical modelling, and the properties of materials that affect friction in steel rolling, such as metals, oxides, and carbides. It connects the theoretical concepts, laboratory-scale observations, and phenomena in other areas of science and engineering to the large-scale industrial process of hot rolling. It also addresses roll properties, oxidation, wear and chemical composition of rolls and their impact on friction, the evolution of friction over schedules and roll campaigns, and mathematical modelling of friction in hot rolling.

Friction and the Hot Rolling of Steel contains a large body of technical information that includes various chemical and physical properties of relevant materials, mathematical models, and plant and laboratory observations. It also provides an extensive reference list of sources that address specific problems and interests in more detail.

  • Presents practical problems that help academics and industrial researchers to identify promising new research areas in tribology and metal processing
  • Offers an insight into the principles of the effective research that combines both academic excellence and industrial relevance
  • Illustrates with observations and easy-to-understand analogies, enhancing the understanding and control of the mechanisms that influence friction in industrial plants

This text services technical, research, and academic personnel working in steel processing, railway engineering, rolling of other metals, solid lubrication, the automotive industry, and more.

Table of Contents

Section I History of Friction: From da Vinci to Now

Early Studies of Friction

Leonardo da Vinci

Robert Hooke

Guillaume Amontons


The Eighteenth Century

France: Parent, Camus, Bélidor

German-Speaking Lands: Leupold, Euler, Leibnitz


Desaguliers and the Concept of Adhesion

Pieter van Musschenbroek

Coulomb: Life, and Studies of Friction


The Nineteenth Century

Dry Friction

Liquid Lubrication


The Twentieth Century and Beyond

Stribeck Curve

Ludwig Gümbel

Resurrection of the Molecular Theory of Friction

Bowden and Tabor

Ernst and Merchant

More Recent Views on Friction at Macroscopic Level

Studies of Friction at Microscopic and Atomic Levels

Application of Adhesion Concept to Hot Rolling


Section II Phenomena Relevant to Friction and the Rolling of Hot Metals

Roughness and Friction


Liquid Lubrication, Stribeck Curve and Friction-Velocity



Solid Lubricants

Impact of Sliding Velocity and Load

Various Explanations of Friction–Velocity Dependence

Some Specific Aspects of Solid Lubrication


Modelling of Friction in Control Engineering

Static Friction Models

Dynamic Friction Models

Experimental Validation of Models


Modelling of Macroscopic Friction

Ernst and Merchant, with Recent Variations

Straffelini, and the Work of Adhesion


Friction on Atomic and Molecular Scales

Some Issues Specific to Atomic Scale Friction

Friction of Metals


Tribological Properties of Oxidised Metals and Carbides


Iron Oxides

Chromium and Molybdenum Oxides

Oxide Glaze

Properties of Key Carbides


Section III From Theoretical Concepts to Industrial Hot Rolling Processes

Chemical Composition and Microstructure of the Shells of HSS, HiCr and ICDP Work Rolls

Elemental Composition of Rolls and Carbides

Carbide Structure and Content

Role of Key Elements

Roll Chemistry and Roll Microstructure

Microstructure and Its Impact on Friction

Impact of Rare Earths and Silicon


Presence and Behaviour of Oxides in Roll Gap

Mechanism of Oxide Formation

Properties of Oxide on Rolls

Impact of Oxides on Friction in Roll Gap

Modelling of Oxide Growth


Impact of Roll Wear on Friction

Basic Types of Roll Wear

Roll Surface Monitoring System Observations

Formation of Fire Cracks and Depth of Damage on Different Roll Types


Friction Evolution over Schedules and Campaigns





Relationship between Friction and Chemical Composition of Rolls

Differences in Friction between Same Type Rolls

Relationship between Friction and Chemistry of Roll Shells



Mathematical Models of Friction in Steel Rolling

Empirical Models

First-Principle Models

Model Based on Commercial Mill Data


Section IV Appendices: Technical Details



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Vladimir Panjkovic, PhD, graduated with a degree in electrical engineering from the University of Novi Sad, and earned his PhD in materials science and engineering from the University of New South Wales. His fields of work include the applications of artificial intelligence to process control, development and deployment of mathematical models of ironmaking processes and steel rolling, analysis of tribological problems in hot strip rolling, and the design and commissioning of thermal equipment. Panjkovic has been awarded the BlueScope Steel Research Excellence Award; the National Project Excellence Award in Automation, Control and Instrumentation; and the John A. Brodie medal in chemical engineering.