From Models to Simulations: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

From Models to Simulations

1st Edition

By Franck Varenne

Routledge

224 pages

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pub: 2018-09-06
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Description

This book analyses the impact computerization has had on contemporary science and explains the origins, technical nature and epistemological consequences of the current decisive interplay between technology and science: an intertwining of formalism, computation, data acquisition, data and visualization and how these factors have led to the spread of simulation models since the 1950s.

Using historical, comparative and interpretative case studies from a range of disciplines, with a particular emphasis on the case of plant studies, the author shows how and why computers, data treatment devices and programming languages have occasioned a gradual but irresistible and massive shift from mathematical models to computer simulations.

Table of Contents

Contents

List of figures

Acknowledgments

List of French abbreviations

Introduction

Chapter 1 – Geometric and botanic simulation

1 The probabilistic simulation of branching biological shapes: Cohen (1966)

2 The epistemic functions of modular programming, simulation and visualization

3 The first geometric and realistic simulation of trees (Honda-Fisher, 1971-1977)

4 The limitations of morphometry and of thermodynamics of trees

5 The first geometric simulation of an actual tree: Terminalia

6 A recap of geometric simulation

Chapter 2: The logical model and algorithmic simulation of algae

1 A botanist won over by logical positivism: the "theory of lifecycles" by A. Lindenmayer (1963-1965)

2 Unusable set of axioms and used set of axioms

3 From logical theory to automata theory (1966-1967)

4 The "developmental model" and the rules of rewriting (1968)

5 The dispute with Brian Carey Goodwin regarding "natural" formalisms

6 Recap: the computer as automata model and deductive machine

Chapter 3: The limitations of biometric models and the transition to simulation in agronomy

1 The institutional and technical context of the IFCC (1966-1971)

2 Transferring a little bit of econometrics to biometrics: a problem of optimization (1974)

3 The first application of plant simulation in agronomics (1974-1975)

4 Fragmented modelling and geometric simulation: de Reffye (1975-1981)

5 Simulation, imitation and the sub-symbolic use of formalisms

Chapter 4: A random and universal architectural simulation

1 Making headway in botany: the notion of "architectural model" (1966-1978)

2 The search for botanical realism (1978-1979)

3 Criticisms of theoretical models

4 Criticisms of biometric models

5 A mixed reception (1979-1981)

Chapter 5: Convergence between integrative simulation and computer graphics

1 The relaunch of research into architectural simulation (1985-1991)

2 Jaeger’s thesis: the prefixed model and synthesis of botanical images (1987)

3 Blaise’s thesis: the simulation of buds parallelism (1991)

4 How can an integrative simulation be validated?

Chapter 6: Convergence between universal simulation and forestry (1990-1998)

1 An epistemological dispute between modellers: INRA and CIRAD

2 Conceptual and institutional convergence: the CIRAD/INRA partner laboratory (1995)

3 The empirical value of simulation

4 Supra-simulations

Chapter 7: The remathematization of simulations (from 1998 onwards)

1 The first mixed structure-function model: "water efficiency" (1997-1999)

2 The parallel evolution of algorithmic simulation: 1984-1994

3 Simulating the individual plant in order to observe crop functioning (1997-2000)

4 The association between AMAP and INRIA: sub-structures and factorization (1998-2006)

5 Recap: pluriformalized simulation and convergence between disciplines

Chapter 8: Twenty-one functions of models and three types of simulations – Classifications and applications

1 General function, main functions and specific functions of models

2 General characterization and classification of computer simulations

3 System simulation, model simulation, system-simulation model and model-simulation model

4 Applications to different plant models and plant simulations

Conclusion

Glossary

Selected Bibliography

Index of names

Index of subjects

About the Author

Franck Varenne is Associate Professor of philosophy of science at the University of Rouen (Normandy – France) and associate researcher at IHPST (CNRS – Paris). His research focuses on the history and epistemology of formal models and computer simulations in contemporary science, especially in biology and geography. He has published around fifty-five articles and chapters. He has also published eight books and co-edited three collective books.

About the Series

History and Philosophy of Technoscience

Even though technoscientific research is as old as alchemy and pharmacy, agricultural research and synthetic chemistry, philosophers of science had little to say about it until recently. This book series is the first to explicitly accept the challenge to study not just technical aspects of theory development and hypothesis testing but the specific ways in which knowledge is produced in a technological setting. When one seeks to achieve basic capabilities of manipulation, visualization, or predictive control, how are problems defined and research fields established, what kinds of explanations are sought, how are findings validated, what are the contributions of different kinds of expertise, how do epistemic and social values enter into the research process? And most importantly for civic observers of contemporary research: how is robustness and reliability achieved even in the absence of complete scientific understanding?

Editorial Board: Hanne Andersen (University of Copenhagen), Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent (University of Paris, Sorbonne), Martin Carrier (University of Bielefeld), Graeme Gooday (University of Leeds), Don Howard (University of Notre Dame), Ann Johnson (Cornell University), Cyrus Mody (Maastricht University), Maureen O'Malley (University of Sydney), Roger Strand (University of Bergen), Nancy Tuana (Pennsylvania State University).

Direct inquiries to Alfred Nordmann [e-mail link: nordmann@phil.tu-darmstadt.de] or Robert Langham [e-mail link: robert.langham@informa.com].

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HIS000000
HISTORY / General
SCI075000
SCIENCE / Philosophy & Social Aspects
TEC052000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Social Aspects