From the North Sea to the Baltic: Essays in Commercial, Monetary and Agrarian History, 1500–1800, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

From the North Sea to the Baltic

Essays in Commercial, Monetary and Agrarian History, 1500–1800, 1st Edition

By Michael North


302 pages

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Hardback: 9780860786009
pub: 1996-10-03
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The Baltic in the early modern period has been called a 'Nordic Mediterranean'. In the studies collected here, Professor North is concerned to examine the ways in which this Baltic region became integrated into the international division of labour and the emerging world economy. The volume opens with a new introductory essay, and the first section then focuses on commodities exported to Western Europe - grain, timber, flax, hemp and other raw materials. The following studies examine how this ever growing bulk trade stimulated a flow of money and payments in the opposite direction, and led to the formation of the manorial economy and second serfdom in the grain-producing countries of the Baltic hinterlands.

Table of Contents

Contents: Introduction; The export trade of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia, 1550-1650; The export of timber and timber by-products from the Baltic region to Western Europe, 1575-1775; A small Baltic port in the early modern period: the port of Elbing in the 16th and 17th century; The lighterman business in the Baltic ports: Danzig, Elbing and Königsberg (16th-18th centuries); The Baltic trade and the decline of the Dutch economy in the 18th century; Hamburg: the ’continent's most English city’; The European rice trade in the 18th and early 19th centuries; Der Große Lübecker Münzschatz von 1533 als Quelle der hansischen Wirtschaftsgeschichte; Banking and credit in Northern Germany in the 15th and 16th centuries; Bullion transfer from Western Europe to the Baltic and the problem of trade balances, 1550-1750; Bullion transfer from Western Europe to the Baltic and to Asia, 1550-1750: a comparison; Geldumlauf und Wirtschaftsregion: Untersuchungen am Beispiel Königlich Preußens und des Herzogtums Preußen in der Frühen Neuzeit; Die frühneuzeitliche Gutswirtschaft als Problem der polnischen und deutschen wirtschaftshistorischen Forschung; Untersuchungen zur adligen Gutswirtschaft im Herzogtum Preußen des 16. Jahrhunderts; Die frühneuzeitliche Gutswirtschaft in Schleswig-Holstein; Wage labour versus corvée labour in East Prussian agriculture (16th-18th centuries); Abgaben und Dienste in der ostdeutschen Landwirtschaft vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Bauernbefreiung: Bestimmungsgründe für die langfristigen Substitutionsprozesse; Ducal Prussia: an internal periphery? (16th-18th centuries); Englische Reiseberichte des 17. Jahrhunderts als Quelle zur Geschichte der königlich-preußischen Städte Danzig, Elbing und Thorn; Index.

About the Series

Variorum Collected Studies

The first title in the Variorum Collected Studies series was published in 1970. Since then well over 1000 titles have appeared in the series, and it has established a well-earned international reputation for the publication of key research across a whole range of subjects within the fields of history.

The history of the medieval world remains central to the series, with Byzantine studies a particular speciality, but the range of titles extends from Hellenistic philosophy and the history of the Roman empire and early Christianity, through the Renaissance and Reformation, up to the 20th century. Islamic Studies forms another major strand as do the histories of science, technology and medicine.

Each title in the Variorum Collected Studies series brings together for the first time a selection of articles by a leading authority on a particular subject. These studies are reprinted from a vast range of learned journals, Festschrifts and conference proceedings. They make available research that is scattered, even inaccessible in all but the largest and most specialized libraries. With a new introduction and index, and often with new notes and previously unpublished material, they constitute an essential resource. 

For further information about contributing to the series please contact Michael Greenwood at

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HISTORY / General