1st Edition

Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics II

Edited By Susan Gourvenec, David White Copyright 2010

    Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics II comprises the Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics (ISFOG), organised by the Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems (COFS) and held at the University of Western Australia (UWA), Perth from 8 – 10 November 2010. The volume addresses current and emerging challenges facing those working in offshore geotechnics, spanning construction, design and research. Keynote papers with authors from industry and academia describe the state-of-the-art of practice and theory. A further 117 peer-reviewed papers describe emerging research, new design techniques and recent case studies related to the frontiers of offshore geotechnical engineering. The themes of the papers include geohazards, gas hydrates, in situ site characterisation and pore pressure measurement, site investigation, soil characterisation, foundations for renewable energy, shallow foundations, jack-up units, piled foundations, anchoring systems, pipelines and risk and reliability. New and established design methods representing industry best practice are discussed alongside new construction technologies and emerging research ideas. Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics II provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art reference for professionals and researchers in offshore, civil and maritime engineering and for soil mechanics specialists.

    1   Keynotes

    A systematic approach to offshore engineering for multiple-project developments in geohazardous areas
    T.G. Evans

    Recommended best practice for geotechnical site characterisation of cohesive offshore sediments
    D.J. DeGroot, T. Lunne & T.I. Tjelta

    Gulf of Guinea deepwater sediments: Geotechnical properties, design issues and installation experiences
    J.-L. Colliat, H. Dendani, A. Puech & J.-F. Nauroy

    Geotechnics for subsea pipelines
    D.J. White & D.N. Cathie

    Axial and lateral pile design in carbonate soils
    C.T. Erbrich, M.P. O’Neill, P. Clancy & M.F. Randolph

    New frontiers for centrifuge modelling in offshore geotechnics
    C. Gaudin, E.C. Clukey, J. Garnier & R. Phillips

    Risk and reliability on the frontier of offshore geotechnics
    R.B. Gilbert, J.D. Murff & E.C. Clukey

    2   Geohazards and gas hydrates

    Neotectonic deformation of northwestern Australia: Implications for oil and gas development
    J.V. Hengesh, K. Wyrwoll & B.B. Whitney

    Deepwater Angola part I: Geohazard mitigation
    A.J. Hill, J.G. Southgate, P.R. Fish & S. Thomas

    Deepwater Angola part II: Geotechnical challenges
    A.J. Hill, T.G. Evans, B. Mackenzie & G. Thompson

    Shallow gas hazard linked to worldwide delta environments
    S. Kortekaas, E. Sens & B. Sarata

    Analysis of submarine flow slides in fine silty sand
    P.V. Lade & J.A.Yamamuro

    Hydrate dissociation around oil exploration infrastructure
    A.K. Sultaniya, J.A. Priest & C.R.I. Clayton

    An investigation of past mass movement events in the West Nile Delta
    S. Thomas, L. Bell, K. Ticehurst & P.S. Dimmock

    Deformation of seabed due to exploitation of methane hydrate reservoir 
    J. Yoneda, M. Hyodo, Y. Nakata, N. Yoshimoto & R. Orense
    3   In situ site characterisation and pore pressure measurement

    A site investigation strategy to obtain fast-track shear strength design parameters in deep water soils
    D. Borel, A. Puech & S. Po

    Enhancement of the ball penetrometer test with pore pressure measurements
    N. Boylan, M.F. Randolph & H.E. Low

    Laboratory free falling penetrometer test into clay
    S.H. Chow & D.W. Airey

    Offshore sediment overpressures: Overview of mechanisms, measurement and modeling
    B. Dugan, T.C. Sheahan, J.M. Thibault & T.G. Evans

    Angolan deepwater soil conditions: GIS technology development for sediment characterization
    P. Enjaume, M. Hamon, K. Epalanga & B. Mackenzie

    Strength measurement in very soft upper seabed sediments
    P. Kelleher, H.E. Low, C. Jones, T. Lunne, S. Strandvik & T.I. Tjelta

    CPT in polar snow – preliminary observations
    A.B. McCallum, A. Barwise & R. Santos

    Parametric study of a free-falling penetrometer in clay-like soils
    M. Nazem & J.P. Carter

    The future of deepwater site investigation: Seabed drilling technology?
    J.J. Osborne, A.G. Yetginer, T. Halliday & T.I. Tjelta

    Mini T-bar testing at shallow penetration
    A. Puech, M. Orozco-Calderón & P. Foray

    Piezometer installation in deepwater Norwegian Sea
    T.I. Tjelta & J. Strout

    Luva deepwater site investigation programme and findings
    T.I. Tjelta & A.G. Yetginer

    Investigations into novel shallow penetrometers for fine-grained soils
    Y. Yan, D.J. White & M.F. Randolph

    Seabed drilling vs surface drilling – a comparison
    A.G. Yetginer & T.I. Tjelta

    4   Soil characterisation and modelling

    Rheological behaviour of soft clays 
    P.E.L. de Santa Maria, I.S.M. Martins & F.C.M. de Santa Maria

    A three-dimensional finite element study of the direct simple shear test
    J.P. Doherty & M. Fahey

    Repeated loading and unloading of the seabed 
    H.J.E. Hu, K.K. Tho, C.T. Gan, A.C. Palmer & C.F. Leung

    A new interpretation of the simple shear test
    H.A. Joer, C.T. Erbrich & S.S. Sharma

    Physical modelling of the crushing behaviour of granular materials
    H.A. Joer & S.S. Sharma

    New evidence for the origin and behaviour of deep ocean ‘crusts’
    M.Y-H. Kuo, M.D. Bolton, A.J. Hill & M.J. Rattley

    Soil unit weight estimated from CPTu in offshore soils
    P.W. Mayne, J. Peuchen & D. Bouwmeester
    Strain rate dependent simple shear behaviour of deepwater sediments in offshore Angola
    M.J. Rattley, A.J. Hill, S. Thomas & B. Sampurno

    Simplified calibration procedure for a high-cycle accumulation model based on cyclic triaxial tests on 22 sands 
    T. Wichtmann, A. Niemunis & Th. Triantafyllidis

    Understanding cyclic loading behavior of soil for offshore applications 
    J. Yang

    5   Shallow foundations

    Observations of shallow skirted foundations under transient and sustained uplift
    H.E. Acosta-Martinez, S. Gourvenec & M.F. Randolph

    Numerical study of grillage foundations on sand under combined VHM loading
    M. Banimahd, A. Maconochie & J. Oliphant

    The vertical bearing capacity of grillage foundations in sand
    M.F. Bransby, P. Hudacsek, J.A. Knappett, M.J. Brown, N. Morgan, D.N. Cathie, R. Egborge, A. Maconochie, G.J. Yun, N. Brown & A. Ripley

    Behaviour of skirted footings on sand overlying clay
    C.T. Gan, K.L. Teh, C.F. Leung, Y.K. Chow & S. Swee

    Numerical study of piping limits for suction installation of offshore skirted foundations and anchors in layered sand
    L.B. Ibsen & C.L. Thilsted

    Shallow foundation performance in a calcareous sand
    B.M. Lehane

    A numerical study of the vertical bearing capacity of skirted foundations
    D.S.K. Mana, S. Gourvenec & M.F. Randolph

    The effect of torsion on the sliding resistance of rectangular foundations
    J.D. Murff, C.P. Aubeny & M. Yang

    Foundation design challenges of the MCR-A skirted gravity platform
    L. Tapper, C. Humpheson & B.M. Lehane

    Constructing breakwater with prefabricated caissons on soft clay
    S. Yan, X. Feng & J. Chu

    6   Piled foundations

    Simplified analysis of laterally loaded pile groups
    F.M. Abdrabbo & K.E. Gaaver

    Behavior of piles under combined lateral and axial loading
    M. Achmus & K. Thieken

    Investigations on the behavior of large diameter piles under cyclic lateral loading
    M. Achmus, J. Albiker & K. Abdel-Rahman

    BP Clair phase 1 – Pile driveability and capacity in extremely hard till 
    T.R. Aldridge, T.M. Carrington, R.J. Jardine, R. Little, T.G. Evans & I. Finnie

    Photoelastic investigation into plugging of open ended piles 
    J. Dijkstra, E.A. Alderlieste & W. Broere

    Soil-pile interaction during extrusion of an initially deformed pile 
    C.T. Erbrich, E. Barbosa-Cruz & R. Barbour

    BP Clair phase 1 – Geotechnical assurance of driven piled foundations in extremely hard till
    T.G. Evans, I. Finnie, R. Little, R.J. Jardine & T.R. Aldridge

    Pile driving experiences in Persian Gulf calcareous sands
    K. Fakharian & I.H. Attar

    FLAC3D analysis on soil moving through piles
    E.H. Ghee & W.D. Guo

    Cyclic loading of barrettes in soft calcareous rock using Osterberg cells
    C.M. Haberfield, D.R. Paul, M.C. Ervin & G.A. Chapman

    Shaft capacity of drilled and grouted piles in calcareous sandstone
    B.M. Lehane

    Numerical analysis of mudmat contribution to capacity of piled offshore platforms 
    L.S.D. Lorenti, M.A. Ismail & B.M. Lehane

    Simplified numerical model for analysis of offshore piles under cyclic lateral loading 
    M.M. Memarpour, M. Kimiaei & M. Shayanfar

    Centrifuge modelling of rapid load tests with piles in silt and sand 
    C.T. Nguyen, H. van Lottum, P. Hölscher & A.F. van Tol

    Field measurements on monopile Dolphins 
    A. Sadeghi-Hokmabadi & A. Fakher

    Behaviour of driven tubular steel piles in calcarenite for a marine jetty in Fujairah, United Arab Emirates 
    J. Thomas, M. van den Berg, F. Chow & N. Maas

    CPT-Based design method for axial capacity of offshore piles in clays
    B.F.J. Van Dijk & H.J. Kolk

    7   Foundations for renewable energy

    Evaluation of pile capacity approaches with respect to piles for wind energy foundations in the North Sea
    M. Achmus & M. Müller

    Installation of suction caissons for offshore renewable energy structures 
    O.J. Cotter, B.W. Byrne & G.T. Houlsby

    Lateral behaviour of large diameter monopiles at Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm 
    L. Hamre, S. Feizi Khankandi, P.J. Strøm & C. Athanasiu

    Centrifuge modelling of offshore monopile foundation 
    R.T. Klinkvort & O. Hededal

    Gravity based foundations for the Rødsand 2 offshore wind farm, Denmark 
    L. Krogh, J.H. Lyngs & J.S. Steenfelt

    Geotechnics for developing offshore renewable energy in the US 
    M. Landon Maynard & J.A. Schneider

    Engineering issues for fixed offshore wind turbines on Lake Michigan Mid Lake Plateau, USA
    P.J. Lang, J.A. Schneider, K. Smith & T. McNeilan

    Centrifuge model tests on piled footings in clay for offshore wind turbines
    B.M. Lehane, W. Powrie & J.P. Doherty

    Design of monopile foundations in sand for offshore windfarms
    M. Saue, T.E. Langford & N. Mortensen

    Experimental evaluation of backfill in scour holes around offshore monopiles
    S.P.H. Sørensen, L.B. Ibsen & P. Frigaard

    An investigation of the use of a bearing plate to enhance the lateral capacity of monopile foundations 
    K.J.L. Stone, T.A. Newson, M. El Marassi, H. El Naggar, R.N. Taylor & R.J. Goodey
    Optimizing site investigations and pile design for wind farms using geostatistical methods: A case study
    B. Stuyts, V. Vissers, D.N. Cathie, C. Jaeck & S. Dörfeldt

    Towards the FE prediction of permanent deformations of offshore wind power plant foundations using a high-cycle accumulation model
    T. Wichtmann, A. Niemunis & Th. Triantafyllidis

    Cyclic accumulation effects at foundations for offshore wind turbines
    H. Wienbroer, H. Zachert, G. Huber, P. Kudella & Th. Triantafyllidis

    Study on soil-structure interaction of suction caisson by large-scale model tests
    B. Zhu, D.Q. Kong, L.G. Kong, R.P. Chen & Y.M. Chen

    8   Jack-up units

    Simplified VH equations for foundation punch-through sand into clay 
    J.-C. Ballard, P. Delvosal, P.H. Yonatan, A. Holeyman & S. Kay

    Characterisation of undrained shear strength using statistical methods 
    B. Bienen, M.J. Cassidy, M.F. Randolph & K.L. Teh

    Centrifuge modelling of spudcan deep penetration in multi-layered soils 
    M.S. Hossain, M.F. Randolph & Y.N. Saunier

    A probabilistic approach to the prediction of spudcan penetration of jack-up units 
    G.T. Houlsby

    An assessment of jackup spudcan extraction 
    O.A. Purwana, H. Krisdani, X.Y. Zheng, M. Quah & K.S. Foo

    3D FE analysis of the installation process of spudcan foundations 
    G. Qiu, S. Henke & J. Grabe

    Undrained bearing capacity of deeply embedded foundations under general loading 
    Y. Zhang, B. Bienen, M.J. Cassidy & S. Gourvenec

    9   Anchoring systems

    Trajectory prediction for drag embedment anchors under out of plane loading
    C.P. Aubeny & C.-M. Chi

    Setup following keying of plate anchors assessed through centrifuge tests in kaolin clay
    A.P. Blake, C.D. O’Loughlin & C. Gaudin

    Seismically-induced displacements of a suction caisson in soft clay
    A.J. Brennan, S.P.G. Madabhushi & P. Cooper

    SEPLA keying prediction method based on full-scale offshore tests
    R.P. Brown, P.C. Wong & J.M. Audibert

    Set-up of suction piles in deepwater Gulf of Guinea clays
    J.-L. Colliat & D. Colliard

    Centrifuge testing of suction piles in deepwater Nigeria clay – Effect of stiffeners and set-up time
    J.-L. Colliat, H. Dendani, H.P. Jostad, K.H. Andersen, L. Thorel, J. Garnier & G. Rault

    Numerical FEM and laboratory study of the bearing capacity factor Nc for plate anchors 
    L.N. Equihua-Anguiano, M. Orozco-Calderón, P. Foray & M. Boulon

    Caisson capacity in clay: VHM resistance envelope – Part 2: VHM envelope equation and design procedures 
    S. Kay & E. Palix

    Installation and in-place assessment of drag anchors in carbonate soil
    M.P. O’Neill, S.R. Neubecker & C.T. Erbrich
    Caisson capacity in clay: VHM resistance envelope – Part 1: 3D FEM numerical study
    E. Palix, T. Willems & S. Kay

    Numerical investigation of the behaviour of suction caissons in structured clays
    S. Panayides, M. Rouainia & A. Osman

    Cyclic moment loading of suction caissons in sand 
    B. Zhu, B.W. Byrne & G.T. Houlsby

    10   Pipelines and risers

    Multidirectional analysis of pipeline-soil interaction in clay 
    R.G. Borges & J.R.M.S. Oliveira

    Geotechnical challenges for deepwater pipeline design – SAFEBUCK JIP 
    D.A.S. Bruton, M. Carr & F. Sinclair

    Large deformation finite element analysis of vertical penetration of pipelines in seabed
    S. Chatterjee, M.F. Randolph, D.J. White & D. Wang

    Implementation of geotechnical techniques in the analysis of pipeline response
    G. Cumming & N. Brown

    Lateral soil resistance to an untrenched pipeline under the action of ocean currents
    F.P. Gao, S.M. Yan, E.Y. Zhang, Y.X. Wu & X. Jia

    Vertical cyclic testing of model steel catenary riser at large scale
    T.E. Langford & V.M. Meyer

    Kupe gas project pipeline – optimisation of discrete rock berm design shore approach
    B.L. Larsson

    Model test studies on soil restraint to pipelines buried in sand
    R. Liu, S.W. Yan & J. Chu

    Pipe-soil interaction on clay with a variable shear strength profile
    D.R. Morrow & M.F. Bransby

    Sweeping behaviour of shallowly-embedded pipeline during cyclic lateral movement 
    T. Takatani

    Advanced nonlinear hysteretic seabed model for dynamic fatigue analysis of steel catenary risers
    I.H.Y. Ting, M. Kimiaei & M.F. Randolph

    Mobilization distance in uplift resistance modeling of pipelines 
    J. Wang, S.K. Haigh, N.I. Thusyanthan & S. Mesmar

    Theoretical, numerical and field studies of offshore pipeline sleeper crossings 
    Z.J. Westgate, M.F. Randolph, D.J. White & P. Brunning

    Observations of pipe-soil response from the first deep water deployment of the SMARTPIPE®  
    D.J. White, A.J. Hill, Z.J. Westgate & J.-C. Ballard

    11    Trenching, ploughing, excavation and burial

    Influence of object geometry on penetration into the seabed
    A. Ivanović, R.D. Neilson, G. Giuliani & M.F. Bransby

    Investigation into the effect of forecutters on plough performance
    K.D. Lauder, M.J. Brown, M.F. Bransby & J. Pyrah

    State-of-the-art jet trenching analysis in stiff clays 
    J.B. Machin & P.A. Allan

    Numerical modelling of soil around offshore pipeline plough shares
    W. Peng & M.F. Bransby
    Anchor–chain–rockfill–soil interaction: Evolution of design methods
    H. van Lottum & H.J. Luger

    Development of a jet trenching model in sand 
    J.-F. Vanden Berghe, J. Pyrah, S. Goading & H. Capart

    12   Design and risk

    Structural factors affecting the system capacity of jacket pile foundations 
    J.Y. Chen, R.B. Gilbert, J.D. Murff, A.G. Young & F.J. Puskar

    The new API Recommended Practice for Geotechnical Engineering: RP 2GEO
    P. Jeanjean, P.G. Watson, H.J. Kolk & S. Lacasse

    Comparison of ISO 19901-2 and API RP 2A seismic design criteria for a site in the Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan
    Z.A. Lubkowski, J.E. Alarcon & Z.A. Razak

    Offshore geotechnics – safe and sustainable
    J. Peuchen & J. Haas


    Susan Gourvenec is currently an Associate Professor at the Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems (COFS) in the University of Western Australia (UWA) having joined as a Research Fellow in 2001. Susan’s research has spanned tunneling, foundations and retaining walls, using advanced numerical analysis, centrifuge modelling and element testing. Her recent research has led to new design approaches for offshore shallow foundation systems and anchors, tackling the effects of combined loading and uplift. This work has led to awards from the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE), the Australian and New Zealand Geomechanics Society and the International Journal of Geomechanics. Assoc. Professor Gourvenec is a member of the Shallow Foundations task group within the API Geotechnical Resource Group. She has authored more than 70 technical publications and leads the delivery of specialist courses on offshore geomechanics for industry and at Masters level within UWA. Assoc. Professor Gourvenec chaired the inaugural International Symposium on Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics in 2005, as well as this subsequent event, and in both cases co-edited the proceedings.

    David White has been a Professorial Fellow at the Centre for Offshore Foundations since 2007. His principal research areas are pipeline geotechnics and foundation engineering. He was awarded his PhD in 2002 from the University of Cambridge. He held a Lectureship in Cambridge until 2007 when he took up his current position at UWA. Professor White has authored more than 140 technical papers including 6 conference keynotes. His publications have won 5 awards, including the Telford Premium, the Bishop Medal and the BGA Prize (twice), and the Australian Academy of Science awarded him the 2010 Anton Hales Medal for distinguished research. Professor White interacts closely with industry, acting as a consultant through the Perth-based firm, Advanced Geomechanics, and he has served on the editorial boards of three journals and on two ISO standard committees (concerned with jack-up foundations and pipelines). He is Secretary of the ISSMGE's Technical Committee 104 (Geotechnical Physical Modelling).