1st Edition

Fuel Cells Principles, Design, and Analysis

    750 Pages 224 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Fuel Cells: Principles, Design, and Analysis considers the latest advances in fuel cell system development and deployment, and was written with engineering and science students in mind. This book provides readers with the fundamentals of fuel cell operation and design, and incorporates techniques and methods designed to analyze different fuel cell systems. It builds on three main themes: basic principles, analysis, and design.

    The section on basic principles contains background information on fuel cells, including fundamental principles such as electrochemistry, thermodynamics, and kinetics of fuel cell reactions as well as mass and heat transfer in fuel cells. The section on design explores important characteristics associated with various fuel cell components, electrodes, electrocatalysts, and electrolytes, while the section on analysis examines phenomena characterization and modeling both at the component and system levels.

    • Includes objectives and a summary in each chapter
    • Presents examples and problems demonstrating theory/principle applications
    • Provides case studies on fuel cell analysis
    • Contains mathematical methods including numerical methods and MATLAB® Simulink® techniques
    • Offers references and material for further reading

    Fuel Cells: Principles, Design, and Analysis presents the basic principles, examples, and models essential in the design and optimization of fuel cell systems. Based on more than ten years of the authors’ teaching experience, this text is an ideal resource for junior- to senior-level undergraduate students and for graduate students pursuing advanced fuel cell research and study.


    Primary Energy Sources—Fossil Fuel

    Renewable Energy Resources and Alternative Energy Systems

    Electrochemical Device—Basic Components and Operation

    Basic Components and Operation of a Fuel Cell

    Classification and Types of Fuel Cell

    Applications of Fuel Cell


    Review of Electrochemistry

    Electrochemical and Electrolysis Cell

    Oxidation and Reduction Processes

    Faraday’s Laws

    Ideal Polarized Electrode

    Polarization and Overpotential

    Conductivity and Ohm’s Law

    Mass Transport and Nernst–Planck Equation

    Standard Hydrogen and Other Reference Electrode

    Cyclic Voltammetry


    Reviews of Thermodynamics

    State, Phase, and Properties

    Thermodynamic Process and Cycle

    Ideal Gas Equation of State

    Energy and Energy Transfer

    The Conservation of Mass

    The First Law of Thermodynamics

    The Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Thermodynamic Relations

    Specific Heat

    Estimation of Change in Enthalpy, Entropy, and Gibbs Function for Ideal Gases

    Mixture of Gases

    Combustion Process

    Enthalpy of Formation hf ( 0 )

    First Law for Reacting Systems

    Enthalpy of Combustion (hRP)

    Temperature of Product of Combustion

    Absolute Entropy sf ( 0 )

    Gibbs Function of Formation gf ( 0 )


    Thermodynamics of Fuel Cell

    Conventional Power Generation—Heat Engine

    Energy Conversion in Fuel Cell

    Changes in Gibbs Free Energy

    Effect of Operating Conditions on Reversible Voltage

    Fuel Cell Efficiency

    Fuel Consumption and Supply Rates

    Water Production Rate

    Heat Generation in a Fuel Cell



    Electrochemical Kinetics

    Electrical Double Layer

    Electrode Kinetics

    Single- and Multistep Electrode Reactions

    Electrode Reaction in Equilibrium—Exchange Current Density

    Equation for Current Density—The Butler–Volmer Equation

    Activation Overpotential and Controlling Factors

    Tafel Equation—Simplified Activation Kinetics

    Relationship of Activation Overpotential with Current Density—Tafel Plots

    Fuel Cell Kinetics

    Fuel Cell Irreversibilities—Voltage Losses

    Fuel Cell Polarization Curve



    Heat and Mass Transfer in Fuel Cell

    Fluid Flow

    Heat Transfer in Fuel Cell

    Mass Transfer in Fuel Cell

    Diffusion Coefficient

    Mass Transfer Resistance in Fuel Cell



    Charge and Water Transport in Fuel Cell

    Charge Transport

    Solid-State Diffusion

    Charge Conductivity

    Ohmic Loss in Fuel Cell

    Water Transport Rate Equation



    Fuel Cell Characterization

    Characterization of Fuel Cell and Fuel Cell Components

    Electrochemical Characterization Techniques

    Characterization of Electrodes and Electrocatalysts

    Characterization of Membrane Electrode Assembly

    Characterization of Bipolar Plates

    Characterization of Porous Structures of Electrodes and Membranes

    Fuel Cell Test Facility



    Fuel Cell Components and Design

    Alkaline Fuel Cell

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell


    Fuel Cell Stack, Bipolar Plate, and Gas Flow Channel

    Fuel Cell Stack Design

    Fuel Cell Stack and Power System

    Water Removal and Management

    Cooling/Heating System for Fuel Cells

    Bipolar Plate Design

    Gas Flow Field


    Simulation Model for Analysis and Design of Fuel Cell

    Zero-Order Fuel Cell Analysis Model

    One-Dimensional Fuel Cell Analysis Model

    One-Dimensional Water Transport Model

    One-Dimensional Electrochemical Model

    One-Dimensional Fuel Cell Thermal Analysis Model

    A Simplified One-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model

    Multi-Dimensional Model


    Dynamic Simulation and Fuel Cell Control System

    Dynamic Simulation Model for Fuel Cell Systems

    Simulation of Fuel Cell–Powered Vehicle

    Dynamic Simulation of Integrated Fuel Cell Systems

    Control System


    Fuel Cell Power Generation Systems

    Fuel Cell Subsystems

    Fuels and Fuel Processing

    Hydrogen as Energy Carrier



    Fuel Cell Application, Codes and Standards, and Environmental Effects

    Fuel Cell Applications

    Fuel Cell Codes and Standards

    Environmental Effects







    Shripad T. Revankar is a professor of nuclear engineering at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, and visiting professor at POSTECH, South Korea, in the Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering. He received his MSc (1977), PhD (1983) in physics from Karnataka University, India, and M.Eng. (1982) in nuclear engineering from McMaster University Canada. He has published more than 300 refereed research papers in journal and conferences, is editor-in-chief of Frontier Energy-Nuclear Energy, serves on the editorial boards of eight international journals including Heat Transfer Engineering, ASME Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, and is also an ASME Fellow and winner of several awards.

    Pradip Majumdar is a professor and chair of mechanical engineering, and the director of the Heat and Mass Transfer Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois. He received his BS degree (1975) in mechanical engineering from B.E College, University of Calcutta, and MS (1980) and PhD (1986) degrees in mechanical engineering from Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. He has worked on a number of federal and industrial research projects and published over 100 refereed research papers in archival journals and conference proceedings. He serves as the editor-in-chief of the Transactions of Fluid Mechanics, International Journal.

    "This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use."
    —Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki

    "A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells."
    —Nigel Brandon, Imperial College

    "This is a one of a kind book that is comprehensive in covering key topics on fuel cell from extensive reviews of electrochemistry and thermodynamics, to modeling and simulation, to fuel processing and environmental impact. The book lays out in-depth theoretical aspects on fuel cell multi-science processes and yet presents material easy to comprehend. It is well written and sufficiently consistent in style embedded with practical examples to serve as an excellent textbook for both undergraduate and graduate course works. The level of thoroughness and detail is impressive and material presented is useful for the broader fuel cell community, including engineers, industry and researchers."
    —Suddhasatwa Basu, Ph.D., professor and head of the chemical engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi