Fuels, Energy, and the Environment: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Fuels, Energy, and the Environment

1st Edition

By Ghazi A. Karim

CRC Press

361 pages | 8 Color Illus. | 173 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781466510173
pub: 2012-11-07
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The need for cleaner, sustainable energy continues to drive engineering research, development, and capital projects. Recent advances in combustion science and technology, including sophisticated diagnostic and control equipment, have enabled engineers to improve fuel processes and systems and reduce the damaging effects of fuels on the environment.

With an emphasis on how fuels and combustion impact economic and environmental interests, Fuels, Energy, and the Environment offers an up-to-date and balanced overview of the whole field of fuel science and technology. Accessible to undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing engineers, the text focuses on energy supplies, fuel efficiency, and environmental challenges.

Using relatively simple language, the book explores the composition and combustion characteristics of a wide range of fuels becoming available worldwide. It examines the dependence on combustion devices for the exploitation of various fuel resources for producing heat and power as well as the need to increase the efficiency of energy production and use. The text also addresses the negative impact on the environment from fuel-consuming devices and activities associated with fuel and energy applications, exploring measures/equipment to control emissions and improve the performance of burners and fuel-consuming appliances.


All complicated materials of combustion science are presented in a very clear and precise manner … This is the book, in my opinion, that every combustion, fire safety, and fuel engineer should have. … equally useful to newcomers … [and] experienced professionals and researchers in the area.

—S.O. Bade Shrestha, Western Michigan University

The book covers all aspects of fuels, not just … chemistry or combustion. Of particular importance and actuality are those issues related to safety and environmental impact. Furthermore, the variety of fuels and processes discussed is very wide.

—Giuseppe Spazzafumo, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio

Table of Contents



Different Forms of Energy

Primary Sources of Energy

Non-Fossil Fuel-Based Energy

Considering the Losses of Energy from Its Production Source to Its Point of Consumption

Energy Resources Exploitation

Fuels in General


Some of the Main Desirable Properties of Fuels

Some Relevant Units of Measurement

Some Patterns of Fuel and Energy Resources and Usage

Definitions of Reserves

Some General Observations about Fuel and Energy Statistics

Changes in the Consumption of Different Sources of Energy

Fuels Classification

Fossil Fuels

Hydrocarbon Fuels

Some Oxygenated Compounds

Fuel-Consuming Energy Systems

Fuel-Consuming Work-Producing Devices

Work and Heat


Fuel Energy Systems


Fuel Consumption

Hybrid Engines

Choice of Energy Systems

Stoichiometry and Thermodynamics

Heating Value of Fuels

Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Procedure for Calculating the Temperature and Composition of the Products of Combustion, When Equilibrium Conditions are Assumed


Some Solved Examples

Chemical Kinetics of Fuel Combustion

Chemical Reactions

Combustion Chemical Kinetics

Solved Examples

Modeling Fuel Combustion Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions Relevant to Fuels and Energy

Exhaust Emissions from the Combustion of Fuels

Products of Combustion of Fuels

Air Pollution Control

Catalytic Converters

Greenhouse Effect

Sulfur in Fuels

Fuel-Induced Corrosion of Metals

Solved Example

Combustion and Flames

Combustion, Flames, and Ignition Processes

Diffusion Flames versus Premixed Flames

Combustion Stability Characteristics

Fuel Combustion via Burners and Orifices

Combustion of Solid Fuels

Solid Fuels Combustion Using Fluidized Beds

Fire and Safety in Relation to Fuel Installations and Handling

Fuel Fires

Flammability Limits of Fuels

Some Protective Measures

Flash Point

Some Terms Related to Fuel Fires and Safety

Solved Example


Petroleum Reservoirs

Oil Recovery

Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods

Oil Sands

Oil Shale

Refining of Petroleum

Need for Refining

Refining Chemical Processes

Catalysts and Their Action

Controls through Codes and Standards


Spark Ignition Gasoline-Fueled Engines


Additives to Gasoline


Spark Ignition Engine Knock

Some Features of Engine Knock

Some Negative Effects of Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

Operational Knock Limits

Octane Number

Effects of Engine Variables for Increased Incidence of Knock

Knock Control

Three-Way Catalyst

Diesel Fuels and Some Other Liquid Fuels

Diesel Engine Combustion Processes

Ignition Delay in Diesel Engines

Diesel Engine Fuels

Diesel Engine Emissions

Biodiesel Fuels

Fischer-Tropsch Diesel

Dual-Fuel Engine

Liquid Fuels for Aviation Applications

Heavy Fuels for Boiler and Furnace Applications

Liquid and Solid Propellants

Solved Example

Solid Fuels

Combustion of Solid Fuels


Case for Coal

Some Properties of Coal

Classification of Coals

Solved Examples

Coal Combustion in Fluidized Beds

Gasification of Coal

Underground Gasification of Coal

Some Other Solid Fuels

Coal Bed Methane

Solid Fuels as Propellants

Solved Example

Natural Gas and Other Gaseous Fuels

Merits of Operation on Gaseous Fuels

Natural Gas

Natural Gas Transmission

Flaring of Fuel Gases

Liquefied Natural Gas

LNG Safety

Hydrates of Methane

Comparison of Features of Natural Gas-Fueled Gas Turbines with Those of Spark-Ignition Engines

Propane and Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Solved Example

LPG Safety

Some Common Non-Natural Gas Mixtures

Landfill Gases

Biogas Fuels

Hydrogen Sulfide

Solved Examples

Alternative Fuels



Alcohols as Fuels

Hydrogen as a Fuel

Liquid Hydrogen

Compressed Natural Gas




Problems, a Synopsis, and a Bibliography appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Author

Ghazi A. Karim is a professor of engineering at the University of Calgary. Dr. Karim has developed numerous undergraduate and graduate courses, conducted research, and published extensively on topics relating to energy conversion, fuels, combustion, and the environment. He has also been a consultant to a wide variety of public and private institutions.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Energy
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels