1st Edition

Fuels, Energy, and the Environment

By Ghazi A. Karim Copyright 2013
    364 Pages 8 Color & 173 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The need for cleaner, sustainable energy continues to drive engineering research, development, and capital projects. Recent advances in combustion science and technology, including sophisticated diagnostic and control equipment, have enabled engineers to improve fuel processes and systems and reduce the damaging effects of fuels on the environment.

    With an emphasis on how fuels and combustion impact economic and environmental interests, Fuels, Energy, and the Environment offers an up-to-date and balanced overview of the whole field of fuel science and technology. Accessible to undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing engineers, the text focuses on energy supplies, fuel efficiency, and environmental challenges.

    Using relatively simple language, the book explores the composition and combustion characteristics of a wide range of fuels becoming available worldwide. It examines the dependence on combustion devices for the exploitation of various fuel resources for producing heat and power as well as the need to increase the efficiency of energy production and use. The text also addresses the negative impact on the environment from fuel-consuming devices and activities associated with fuel and energy applications, exploring measures/equipment to control emissions and improve the performance of burners and fuel-consuming appliances.

    Different Forms of Energy
    Primary Sources of Energy
    Non-Fossil Fuel-Based Energy
    Considering the Losses of Energy from Its Production Source to Its Point of Consumption
    Energy Resources Exploitation

    Fuels in General
    Some of the Main Desirable Properties of Fuels
    Some Relevant Units of Measurement
    Some Patterns of Fuel and Energy Resources and Usage
    Definitions of Reserves
    Some General Observations about Fuel and Energy Statistics
    Changes in the Consumption of Different Sources of Energy

    Fuels Classification
    Fossil Fuels
    Hydrocarbon Fuels
    Some Oxygenated Compounds

    Fuel-Consuming Energy Systems
    Fuel-Consuming Work-Producing Devices
    Work and Heat
    Fuel Energy Systems
    Fuel Consumption
    Hybrid Engines
    Choice of Energy Systems

    Stoichiometry and Thermodynamics
    Heating Value of Fuels
    Adiabatic Flame Temperature
    Procedure for Calculating the Temperature and Composition of the Products of Combustion, When Equilibrium Conditions are Assumed
    Some Solved Examples

    Chemical Kinetics of Fuel Combustion
    Chemical Reactions
    Combustion Chemical Kinetics
    Solved Examples
    Modeling Fuel Combustion Reactions
    Types of Chemical Reactions Relevant to Fuels and Energy

    Exhaust Emissions from the Combustion of Fuels
    Products of Combustion of Fuels
    Air Pollution Control
    Catalytic Converters
    Greenhouse Effect
    Sulfur in Fuels
    Fuel-Induced Corrosion of Metals
    Solved Example

    Combustion and Flames
    Combustion, Flames, and Ignition Processes
    Diffusion Flames versus Premixed Flames
    Combustion Stability Characteristics
    Fuel Combustion via Burners and Orifices
    Combustion of Solid Fuels
    Solid Fuels Combustion Using Fluidized Beds

    Fire and Safety in Relation to Fuel Installations and Handling
    Fuel Fires
    Flammability Limits of Fuels
    Some Protective Measures
    Flash Point
    Some Terms Related to Fuel Fires and Safety
    Solved Example

    Petroleum Reservoirs
    Oil Recovery
    Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods
    Oil Sands
    Oil Shale

    Refining of Petroleum
    Need for Refining
    Refining Chemical Processes
    Catalysts and Their Action
    Controls through Codes and Standards

    Spark Ignition Gasoline-Fueled Engines
    Additives to Gasoline
    Spark Ignition Engine Knock
    Some Features of Engine Knock
    Some Negative Effects of Knock in Spark Ignition Engines
    Operational Knock Limits
    Octane Number
    Effects of Engine Variables for Increased Incidence of Knock
    Knock Control
    Three-Way Catalyst

    Diesel Fuels and Some Other Liquid Fuels
    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes
    Ignition Delay in Diesel Engines
    Diesel Engine Fuels
    Diesel Engine Emissions
    Biodiesel Fuels
    Fischer-Tropsch Diesel
    Dual-Fuel Engine
    Liquid Fuels for Aviation Applications
    Heavy Fuels for Boiler and Furnace Applications
    Liquid and Solid Propellants
    Solved Example

    Solid Fuels
    Combustion of Solid Fuels
    Case for Coal
    Some Properties of Coal
    Classification of Coals
    Solved Examples
    Coal Combustion in Fluidized Beds
    Gasification of Coal
    Underground Gasification of Coal
    Some Other Solid Fuels
    Coal Bed Methane
    Solid Fuels as Propellants
    Solved Example

    Natural Gas and Other Gaseous Fuels
    Merits of Operation on Gaseous Fuels
    Natural Gas
    Natural Gas Transmission
    Flaring of Fuel Gases
    Liquefied Natural Gas
    LNG Safety
    Hydrates of Methane
    Comparison of Features of Natural Gas-Fueled Gas Turbines with Those of Spark-Ignition Engines
    Propane and Liquefied Petroleum Gas
    Solved Example
    LPG Safety
    Some Common Non-Natural Gas Mixtures
    Landfill Gases
    Biogas Fuels
    Hydrogen Sulfide
    Solved Examples

    Alternative Fuels
    Alcohols as Fuels
    Hydrogen as a Fuel
    Liquid Hydrogen
    Compressed Natural Gas




    Problems, a Synopsis, and a Bibliography appear at the end of each chapter.


    Ghazi A. Karim is a professor of engineering at the University of Calgary. Dr. Karim has developed numerous undergraduate and graduate courses, conducted research, and published extensively on topics relating to energy conversion, fuels, combustion, and the environment. He has also been a consultant to a wide variety of public and private institutions.

    All complicated materials of combustion science are presented in a very clear and precise manner … This is the book, in my opinion, that every combustion, fire safety, and fuel engineer should have. … equally useful to newcomers … [and] experienced professionals and researchers in the area.
    —S.O. Bade Shrestha, Western Michigan University

    The book covers all aspects of fuels, not just … chemistry or combustion. Of particular importance and actuality are those issues related to safety and environmental impact. Furthermore, the variety of fuels and processes discussed is very wide.
    —Giuseppe Spazzafumo, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio