Defense forces have always invested a great deal of their resources in training. In recent times, changes in the complexity and intensity of operations have reaffirmed the importance of ensuring that warfighters are adequately prepared for the environments in which they are required to work. The emergence of new operational drivers such as asymmetric threats, urban operations, joint and coalition operations and the widespread use of military communications and information technology networks has highlighted the importance of providing warfighters with the competencies required to act in a coordinated, adaptable fashion, and to make effective decisions in environments characterized by large amounts of sometimes ambiguous information. While investment in new technologies can make available new opportunities for action, it is only through effective training that personnel can be made ready to apply their tools in the most decisive and discriminating fashion. There are many factors which can have an impact on the efficacy of training and many issues to consider when designing and implementing training strategies. These issues are often complex and nuanced, and in order to grasp them fully a significant investment of time and energy is required. However, the requirement to respond quickly to ever-changing technology, a high operational tempo and minimal staffing may preclude many in today's defense forces from seeking out all such resources on their own. This edited collection provides brief, easy-to-understand summaries of the key issues in defense training and simulation, as well as guidance for further reading. It consists of a collection of short essays, each of which addresses a fundamental issue in defense training and simulation, and features an up-to-date reference list to enable the reader to undertake further investigation of the issues addressed. In essence, this book provides the optimum starting point, or first resource, for readers to come to terms with the important issues associated with defense training and simulation. The contributions are written by leading scholars from military research institutions in the US, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, as well as selected researchers from academic and private sector research institutions.
Dr Christopher Best is a Senior Research Scientist within the Air Operations Division of the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia. He holds a PhD in psychology and his research interests include various aspects of human perception, cognition and learning. He currently leads a program of research on team performance and the use of simulation for training in the domain of military air operations. Dr Best has been an Australian national representative on the TTCP HUM Group Technical Panel on training since 2004. Dr George Galanis is currently the Scientific Advisor for the Australian Air Force. Prior to that position he was a Principal Research Scientist with the Defence Science and Technology Organisation in Australia. He has worked extensively in the field of simulation and training, including developing simulators for civil and military pilot training, and from 2001 until 2012 he was head of training research for the Australian Army. He was the Australian National Leader of the TTCP HUM TP2 Training Technology panel from 2001 until 2012 and chaired the panel from 2006 until 2009. Dr Galanis holds a PhD in Engineering and Human Factors and he is also a qualified pilot holding an Air Transport Pilot License with multi-engine instrument and instructor ratings. James Kerry is a Research Leader in the New Zealand Defence Technology Agency. He has considerable experience in the UK Armed Forces and more recently the NZ Defence Force and is currently involved exploring the effective transfer of training from the classroom to the 'field'. Kerry is the National Lead and former Chair of the TTCP HUM Group Technical Panel on training technology. Dr Robert Sottilare is the Chief Technology Officer at the US Army Research Laboratory’s SFC Paul Ray Smith Simulation & Training Technology Center, Orlando, Florida. He holds a PhD in Modeling & Simulation and his current research focus is in machine learning, learner modeling and the application of artificial i
'Modeling and simulation capability and technologies are ubiquitous in our modern world. This is absolutely the case for training. Such capability allows us to increase training effectiveness while saving considerable resources. This book deftly provides key definitions and uses of modeling and simulation in advancing military competency. The book will benefit those who are new to applying this technology to solving real-world training problems.' Dee H. Andrews, Senior Research Psychologist, US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences 'A must read for anyone whose mission it is to present material to an audience for their application and use. This is especially true for military trainers who use technology as a platform in the learning process. The key is understanding the means by which trainees learn and to find the techniques that fit how individuals learn, in order to make contact time most effective/efficient. The '"Go/No Go'"decision on training effectiveness is not that the material was presented, but did the trainee grasp the concept and succeed. An important tool for anyone working to educate.' Brigadier General Steven Seay (retired), Former Program Executive Officer, US Army PEO Simulation Training and Instrumentation ’Fundamental Issues in Defense Training and Simulation provides a unique, timely and relevant contribution to the consideration of defence training and simulation. It is a well conceived, comprehensible and well-structured text that is applicable to the military training domain and broader business-related domains that have an interest in simulation and its relationship to training.’ Journal of Battlefield Technology, vol. 17, no. 1, March 2014