Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves  book cover
2nd Edition

Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

ISBN 9781138077201
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
504 Pages 161 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Written at an intermediate level in a way that is easy to understand, Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves, Second Edition provides an up-to-date exposition of ultrasonics and some of its main applications. Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition emphasizes underlying physical concepts over mathematics.

The first half covers the fundamentals of ultrasonic waves for isotropic media. Starting with bulk liquid and solid media, discussion extends to surface and plate effects, at which point the author introduces new modes such as Rayleigh and Lamb waves. This focus on only isotropic media simplifies the usually complex mathematics involved, enabling a clearer understanding of the underlying physics to avoid the complicated tensorial description characteristic of crystalline media.

The second part of the book addresses a broad spectrum of industrial and research applications, including quartz crystal resonators, surface acoustic wave devices, MEMS and microacoustics, and acoustic sensors. It also provides a broad discussion on the use of ultrasonics for non-destructive evaluation. The author concentrates on the developing area of microacoustics, including exciting new work on the use of probe microscopy techniques in nanotechnology.

Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, as well as their propagation, technology, and applications, this book addresses viscoelasticity, as well as new concepts in acoustic microscopy. It updates coverage of ultrasonics in nature and developments in sonoluminescence, and it also compares new technologies, including use of atomic force acoustic microscopy and lasers. Highlighting both direct and indirect applications for readers working in neighboring disciplines, the author presents particularly important sections on the use of microacoustics and acoustic nanoprobes in next-generation devices and instruments.

Table of Contents

Ultrasonics: An Overview


Ultrasonics in Nature

Historical Development

Physical Acoustics

Low-Frequency Bulk Acoustic Wave Applications

Surface Acoustic Waves

Piezoelectric Materials

High-Power Ultrasonics

Medical Ultrasonics


Underwater Acoustics and Seismology

Introduction to Vibrations and Waves


Wave Motion

Bulk Waves in Fluids

One-Dimensional Theory of Fluids

Three-Dimensional Model

Introduction to the Theory of Elasticity

A Short Introduction to Tensors

Strain Tensor

Stress Tensor

Thermodynamics of Deformation

Hooke’s Law

Other Elastic Constants

Bulk Acoustic Waves in Solids

1D Model of Solids

Wave Equation in Three Dimensions

Material Properties

Viscoelastic Solids

Finite Beams: Radiation, Diffraction, and Scattering



Focused Acoustic Waves

Radiation Pressure

Doppler Effect

Reflection and Transmission of Ultrasonic Waves at Interfaces


Reflection and Transmission at Normal Incidence

Oblique Incidence: Fluid–Fluid Interface

Fluid–Solid Interface

Solid–Solid Interface

Rayleigh Waves


Rayleigh Wave Propagation

Fluid-Loaded Surface

Lamb Waves

Potential Method for Lamb Waves

Fluid-Loading Effects

Acoustic Waveguides

Introduction: Partial Wave Analysis

Waveguide Equation: SH Modes

Lamb Waves

Rayleigh Waves

Layered Substrates

Multilayer Structures

Free Isotropic Cylinder

Waveguide Configurations

Crystal Acoustics


Group Velocity and Characteristic Surfaces


Cavitation and Sonoluminescence

Bubble Dynamics

Multibubble Sonoluminescence

Single Bubble SL

Bulk Acoustic Wave Transducers, Delay Lines, and Oscillators

Bulk Acoustic Wave Transducers

Bulk Acoustic Wave Delay Lines

Quartz Crystal Resonators

Silicon Oscillators

Surface Acoustic Wave Transducers, Analog Signal Processing, and Mobile Applications


Basic Components

Materials and Technology

Signal Processing

Saw Applications

Saw Wireless Communication to Coded Devices

Microacoustics: RF MEMS, FBAR, and CMUT


Overview of MEMS Technology



CMUT Capacitive Transducers

Acoustic Sensors

Thickness-Shear Mode Resonators

Saw Sensors

SH-Type Sensors

Flexural Plate Wave Sensors

CMUT Chem/Biosensor

FBAR Liquid Sensors

Thin-Rod Acoustic Sensors

Gravimetric Sensitivity Analysis and Comparison

Physical Sensing of Liquids

Chemical Gas Sensors

Taste Sensing: Electronic Tongue


Perspectives in Acoustic Sensors

Focused Beam Acoustic Microscopy



Acoustic Lens Design

Contrast Mechanisms and Quantitative Measurements

Applications of Acoustic Microscopy

Near-Field Acoustic Microscopy


Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Atomic Force Microscope

Ultrasonic AFM

Contact Resonance Force Microscopy

Mechanical Diode Effect Microscopy

Acoustic Wave Probe Microscopy

Other Probe Microscopies


Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials




Layered Structures


Thickness Gauging

Process Control

Structural Health Monitoring

Time Reversal Mirrors

Non/Loosely Contacting NDE Techniques

Laser Ultrasonics

Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers

Air-Coupled Transducers

Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy


Appendix A: Bessel Functions

Appendix B: Acoustic Properties of Materials

Appendix C: Complementary Laboratory Experiments

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J. David N. Cheeke received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in engineering physics from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, in 1959 and 1961, respectively, and his Ph.D in low temperature physics from Nottingham University, United Kingdom, in 1965. He then joined the Low Temperature Laboratory, CNRS, Grenoble, France, and also served as professor of physics at the Université de Grenoble. In 1975, Dr. Cheeke moved to the Université de Sherbrooke, Canada, where he set up an ultrasonics laboratory, specializing in physical acoustics, acoustic microscopy, and acoustic sensors. In 1991, he joined the physics department at Concordia University, Montreal, where he was head of an ultrasonics laboratory. He was chair of the department from 1992 to 2000. In 2003 he retired from Concordia University and became Vice President, Operations, of Microbridge Technologies, Inc., Montreal, a spinoff from Concordia University. He retired from Microbridge in 2006 and has lived in Victoria, BC, since that time. He has published more than 150 papers on various aspects of ultrasonics and acoustics. He is a senior member of the IEEE.


"…balances elementary introduction and advanced application; his discussion of advanced application extends to current research in theoretical and experimental ultrasonics. …wherever possible Cheeke uses qualitative models to elucidate complex concepts he has derived mathematically but whose full physical implications may be opaque to the neophyte. In introducing ultrasonic measurement techniques, he enumerates the steps and methods -- and also the pitfalls that await the unsuspecting novice."
-- Physics Today, April 2003