1st Edition

Fundamentals of Biomechanics

By Ronald L. Huston Copyright 2013
    470 Pages 336 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    In the last three or four decades, studies of biomechanics have expanded from simple topical applications of elementary mechanics to entire areas of study. Studies and research in biomechanics now exceed those in basic mechanics itself, underlining the continuing and increasing importance of this area of study. With an emphasis on biodynamic modeling, Fundamentals of Biomechanics provides an accessible, basic understanding of the principles of biomechanics analyses.

    Following a brief introductory chapter, the book reviews gross human anatomy and basic terminology currently in use. It describes methods of analysis from elementary mathematics to elementary mechanics and goes on to fundamental concepts of the mechanics of materials. It then covers the modeling of biosystems and provides a brief overview of tissue biomechanics. The author then introduces the concepts of biodynamics and human body modeling, looking at the fundamentals of the kinematics, the kinetics, and the inertial properties of human body models. He supplies a more detailed analysis of kinematics, kinetics, and dynamics of these models and discusses the numerical procedures for solving the governing dynamical equations. The book concludes with a review of a few example applications of biodynamic models such as simple lifting, maneuvering in space, walking, swimming, and crash victim simulation.

    The inclusion of extensive lists of problems of varying difficulty, references, and an extensive bibliography add breadth and depth to the coverage. Focusing on biodynamic modeling to a degree not found in other texts, this book equips readers with the expertise in biomechanics they need for advanced studies, research, and employment in biomedical engineering.

    Principal Areas of Biomechanics
    Approach in This Book

    Review of Human Anatomy and Some Basic Terminology
    Gross (Whole-Body) Modeling
    Position and Direction Terminology
    Terminology for Common Movements
    Skeletal Anatomy
    Major Joints
    Major Muscle Groups
    Anthropometric Data

    Methods of Analysis I: Review of Vectors, Dyadics, Matrices,and Determinants
    Vector Algebra: Addition and Multiplication by Scalars
    Vector Algebra: Multiplication of Vectors
    Relationship of 3 × 3 Determinants, Permutation Symbols,and Kronecker Delta Functions
    Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, and Principal Directions
    Maximum and Minimum Eigenvalues and the Associated Eigenvectors
    Use of MATLAB®
    Elementary MATLAB® Operations and Functions

    Methods of Analysis II: Forces and Force Systems
    Forces: Vector Representations
    Moments of Forces
    Moments of Forces about Lines
    Systems of Forces
    Special Force Systems
    Principle of Action–Reaction

    Methods of Analysis III: Mechanics of Materials
    Concepts of Stress
    Concepts of Strain
    Principal Values of Stress and Strain
    Two-Dimensional Example: Mohr’s Circle
    Elementary Stress–Strain Relations
    General Stress–Strain (Constitutive) Relations
    Equations of Equilibrium and Compatibility
    Use of Curvilinear Coordinates
    Review of Elementary Beam Theory
    Thick Beams
    Curved Beams
    Singularity Functions
    Elementary Illustrative Examples
    Listing of Selected Beam Displacement and Bending Moment Results
    Magnitude of Transverse Shear Stress
    Torsion of Bars
    Torsion of Members with Noncircular and Thin-Walled Cross Sections
    Energy Methods

    Methods of Analysis IV: Modeling of Biosystems
    Multibody (Lumped Mass) Systems
    Lower-Body Arrays
    Whole-Body, Head/Neck, and Hand Models
    Gross-Motion Modeling of Flexible Systems

    Tissue Biomechanics
    Hard and Soft Tissue
    Physical Properties of Bone
    Bone Development (Wolff’s Law)
    Bone Failure (Fracture and Osteoporosis)
    Muscle Tissue
    Scalp, Skull, and Brain Tissue
    Skin Tissue

    Kinematical Preliminaries: Fundamental Equations
    Points, Particles, and Bodies
    Particle, Position, and Reference Frames
    Particle Velocity
    Particle Acceleration
    Absolute and Relative Velocity and Acceleration
    Vector Differentiation, Angular Velocity
    Two Useful Kinematic Procedures
    Configuration Graphs
    Use of Configuration Graphs to Determine Angular Velocity
    Application with Biosystems
    Angular Acceleration
    Transformation Matrix Derivatives
    Relative Velocity and Acceleration of Two Points Fixed on a Body
    Singularities Occurring with Angular Velocity Componentsand Orientation Angles
    Rotation Dyadics
    Euler Parameters
    Euler Parameters and Angular Velocity
    Inverse Relations between Angular Velocity and Euler Parameters
    Numerical Integration of Governing Dynamical Equations

    Kinematic Preliminaries: Inertia Force Considerations
    Applied Forces and Inertia Forces
    Mass Center
    Equivalent Inertia Force Systems

    Human Body Inertia Properties
    Second Moment Vectors, Moments, and Products of Inertia
    Inertia Dyadics
    Sets of Particles
    Parallel Axis Theorem
    Eigenvalues of Inertia: Principal Directions
    Eigenvalues of Inertia: Symmetrical Bodies
    Application with Human Body Models

    Kinematics of Human Body Models
    Notation, Degrees of Freedom, and Coordinates
    Angular Velocities
    Generalized Coordinates
    Partial Angular Velocities
    Transformation Matrices: Recursive Formulation
    Generalized Speeds
    Angular Velocities and Generalized Speeds
    Angular Acceleration
    Mass Center Positions
    Mass Center Velocities
    Mass Center Accelerations
    Summary: Human Body Model Kinematics

    Kinetics of Human Body Models
    Applied (Active) and Inertia (Passive) Forces
    Generalized Forces
    Generalized Applied (Active) Forces on a Human Body Model
    Forces Exerted across Articulating Joints
    Contribution of Gravity (Weight) Forces to the GeneralizedActive Forces
    Generalized Inertia Forces

    Dynamics of Human Body Models
    Kane’s Equations
    Generalized Forces for a Human Body Model
    Dynamical Equations
    Formulation for Numerical Solutions
    Constraint Equations
    Constraint Forces
    Constrained System Dynamics
    Determination of Orthogonal Complement Arrays

    Numerical Methods
    Governing Equations
    Numerical Development of the Governing Equations
    Outline of Numerical Procedures
    Algorithm Accuracy and Efficiency

    Simulations and Applications
    Review of Human Modeling for Dynamic Simulation
    Human Body in Free Space: A "Spacewalk"
    Simple Weight Lift
    15.5 Swimming
    Crash-Victim Simulation I: Modeling
    Crash-Victim Simulation II: Vehicle Environment Modeling
    Crash-Victim Simulation III: Numerical Analysis
    Burden Bearing: Waiter/Tray Simulations
    Other Applications
    Appendix: Anthropometric Data Tables


    Ronald L. Huston is a Distinguished Research Professor in the School of Dynamic Systems, College of Engineering and Applied Science, at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio.

    "This book provides a thorough and easy-to-understand presentation of the fundamentals required to study the mechanics of human motion. I am happy to see an emphasis on the fundamentals of biodynamic modeling and the development of human body models. This should allow readers to more quickly understand and develop models associated with human motion. Huston is a skilled author with the ability to render difficult topics manageable."
    —James W. Kamman, Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Western Michigan University

    "This biomechanics book does indeed lay the ground for learning the fundamentals in biomechanics, which have been lacking for so many years. The books gets away from the statics concepts that are quite abundant and dominant topics in previous published biomechanics books and instead focuses on motion, dynamics and current and practical problems that are relevant to gait analysis, and human joint dynamics. The examples are vivid, intuitive, interesting and are the product of the author’s rich and exemplary many years of research and teaching."

    "Finally a biomechanics book that deals with dynamics of BIOSYSTEMS in depth. The author has 15 chapters, which can be used in away to conform to a number of biomechanics course levels or simply be taught in 2 semesters. The book can be an outstanding tool for those interested in simulation of gait, human joint kinematics, and muscles force identification and modeling in general."
    Farid Amirouche, University of Illinois at Chicago

    "A unified method of approach to the analysis of biodynamic system is clearly addressed. This book can be used for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to study biomechanics. It can be also used as a reference for automotive engineers and researchers … .

    Derivations of equations and formulae in this book were clear and that should be helpful for readers. The various chapters contain problems for readers studying the subject for first time, and for those seeking additional expertise and/or review. Overall I commend the author for writing the text and I trust that it will be a good addition to the university and engineering libraries."
    —C. Q. Liu, Chrysler LLC, Troy, Michigan