Fundamentals of Daily Shop Floor Management : A Guide for Manufacturing Optimization and Excellence book cover
1st Edition

Fundamentals of Daily Shop Floor Management
A Guide for Manufacturing Optimization and Excellence




  • Available for pre-order. Item will ship after February 17, 2023
ISBN 9781032370545
February 17, 2023 Forthcoming by Productivity Press
280 Pages 81 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Survival and thriving in today’s business environment require companies to continuously strive for operational excellence at all levels of the organization. Simply working to maintain existing operations is not an adequate or sustainable business strategy, especially when competing in a global market. To remain relevant, companies must adopt a process control and continuous improvement mentality as an integral part of their daily work activities. These two operational disciplines form the foundation and stepping stones for manufacturing excellence. Processes must be stable, capable, and controlled as a prerequisite for sustainable improvement. Sustainable improvements must be strategic, continuous, and focused on process optimization.

Modern-day manufacturing is rapidly changing in the face of technological, geopolitical, social and environmental developments. These challenges are altering the way we think and act to transform raw materials into finished goods. Meeting these challenges requires particular attention to how we develop and engage people and apply technology for long-term sustainability and competitive advantage. This book takes take you on a journey to explore the fundamentals elements, management practices, improvement methods, and future direction of shop floor management.

Part 1 of this five-part manuscript considers workplace culture, organizational structure, operational discipline, and employee accountability as the foundation for a robust manufacturing system. Part 2 studies the impact of process standardization, data analytics, information sharing, communication, and people on daily shop floor management. Once the management system has been adequately described, part 3 concentrates on its effective execution, monitoring and control with a deep look into the people, methods, machines, materials and environment that make it possible. Like every good manufacturing text, efficiency and productivity are a key topic, that’s why part 4 explores various methods, tools and techniques associated with product and process development, productivity improvement, agile methods, shop floor optimization and manufacturing excellence. The final section, part 5, shifts focus to emerging technologies, engaging the reader to contemplate technology’s impact on the digital transformation of the manufacturing industry.

Table of Contents

Fundamentals of Daily Shop Floor Management:

A Guide for Manufacturing Optimization and Excellence

Table of Contents:

Preface

Figure P.1: Steps to Operational Excellence

Figure P.2: Daily Shop Floor Management Roadmap

Reference

Acknowledgment

About the Author

Introduction

Overview

Book Contents

Part 1 - Shop Floor Foundation

Part 2 - Shop Floor Fundamentals

Part 3 - Shop Floor Management

Part 4 - Shop Floor Improvement

Part 5 - Shop Floor - Next Generation

The Journey to Manufacturing Excellence

Daily Shop Floor Management

Essential Practices of Shop Floor Management

Figure I.1: Principles and Practices of Daily Shop Floor Management

Summary

Side Bar: 8 Steps for Improving Shop Floor Performance

Key Points

A Note about Supply Chain Management (SCM)

Manufacturing Supply Chain Management

Administration

Production

Distribution

Figure I.2: Key Supply Chain Functions

Figure I.3: Supply Chain Management (SCM) Activities

Figure I.4: Production Activities

Sources

Part 1 - Shop Floor Foundation

Overview

Figure 1.0.1: The Fundamental Elements of DSFM

1.1 Organizational Culture)

Introduction

Lean Mindset and Culture

Key Points – Culture

Organizational Commitment

Key Points - Commitment

Organizational Alignment

Key Points

Side Bar: A Multicultural World

Side Bar: Influencing Commitment

Source

1.2 Organizational Structure

Overview

Figure 1.0.1A: Fundamental Elements of Daily Shop Floor Management

Figure 1.2.1: Elements of Organizational Structure

Organizational Framework

Business Strategy

Guiding Principles

Routine Practices

Shop Floor Management Planning

Manufacturing Operations Manual (MOM)

Side Bar: A Manufacturing Management System

Guidelines, Procedures & Standards

Shop Floor System Execution

Standard Work Routines

Figure 1.2.2 Operating Instructions

Shop Floor System Monitoring

Figure 1.2.3: System Monitoring Practices

Key Process Indicators (KPI)

Visual Controls

Gemba Walks

Performance Reviews

Layered Process Audits

Process Control

Deviation Management

Action Item List

Structured Problem Solving

Total Productive Maintenance

Productivity Improvement

Key Points

Side Bar: Shop Floor Expectations

1.3 Operational Discipline

Overview

Figure 1.0.1B: Fundamental Elements of Daily Shop Floor Management

Sustainable Discipline

Improving Operational Discipline

How to Maintain Operational Discipline

Side Bar: Discipline Matters

Key Points

Sources

 

 

1.4 Employee Accountability

Overview

Figure 1.0.1C: Fundamental Elements of Daily Shop Floor Management

Corporate Accountability

Employee Accountability

Side Bar: Ways to Enhance Employee Accountability

Peer Accountability

Shop Floor Accountability

Setting Employee Expectations

Employee Feedback

Employee Empowerment

Rewards and Consequences

Treat People with Respect

Communication

Strategy Alignment

Case Study: Are you a Management Tool or Empowered?

Accountability vs. Micro-management

Attitude, Behavior and Accountability

Commitment and Accountability

Key Points:

Side Bar: Personal Accountability

Part 2 - Shop Floor Fundamentals

Overview

Figure 2.0.1 Fundamentals of Shop Floor Management

2.1 Standardization

Introduction

Figure 2.1.1: Shop Floor Control and Improvement

Workplace Cleanliness and Organization (5S)

Procedures and Standard Work Instructions (SWI)

Figure 2.1.2: Standard Work Instruction (SWI)

Standard Operation Sheet (SOS)

Figure 2.1.3: Standard Operation Sheet (SOS)

Work Place Design

Key Points

2.2 Shop Floor Data and Information

Measurement Data

Figure 2.2.1 Typical Manufacturing Metrics

Key Process Indicators

Figure 2.2.2: Input, Process, and Output indicators

Figure 2.2.3: Types of Metrics

Sidebar: Setting Performance Expectations

Data Gathering

Figure 2.2.4: Data Collection Plan

Data Analysis

Data Reporting

Key Points

2.3 Data Visualization

Overview

Visual Controls for Process Management

Figure 2.3.1: Visual Communication Elements

Common Visual Control Displays

Information or Communication Boards

Figure 2.3.2: Information or Communication Board Example

Figure 2.3.3: A Production Line Board Hourly Output Template

Manpower Planning Boards

Employee Cross-Training / Qualification Matrix

Figure 2.3.4: Employee Qualification Matrix

Andon Boards & Lights

Tip: Chart Preparation

Key Points

2.4 Shop Floor Communication

Overview

Figure 2.4.1: Five Shop Floor Communication Methods

Machine to Machine (M2M) Communication

Machine to Business (M2B) or Machine to Enterprise (M2E) Communication

Shop Floor Communication

Daily Meetings

Figure 2.4.2: Daily Meeting Hierarchy

Weekly Meetings

Monthly Meetings

Project Performance Reviews

Gemba Walks

Case Study: Gemba Walks in Action

Mobile Devices

Key Points

2.5 Shop Floor People

People Overview

Employee Empowerment

Respect, Honesty, Trust

Training & Development

Side Bar: Developing People through Workshops

Mentoring & Coaching

Recognition & Reward

Stakeholder Management

Side Bar: Employee Satisfaction

Key Points

2.6 Facilities Management

Shop Floor Environment

Technical Cleanliness

Ergonomics

ESD

Utilities

Key Points

Part 3 - Shop Floor Management

Overview

Figure 3.0A: Fundamental Elements of Daily Shop Floor Management

3.1 Manufacturing System Execution

Overview

Figure 3.0B: Fundamental Elements of Daily Shop Floor Management

Standard Work Routines

Figure 3.1.1: Roles, Responsibilities, and Standard Work Routines Hierarchy

Figure 3.1.2: Snapshot of Standard Work Routines.

Preparing Standard Work Routines

Key Points

3.2 Manufacturing System Monitoring

Overview

Figure 3.0C: Fundamental Elements of Daily Shop Floor Management

Process Monitoring / Verification

Figure 3.2.1: Shop Floor Monitoring Practices

Go, See, Observe

Gemba Walks

Side Bar: The 10 Minute Gemba Walk

Scrap Walks / Reviews

Layered Process Audits

Side Bar: Standard Process Audit Questions

Performance Reviews

Key Points

3.3 Manufacturing System Control

Overview

Figure 3.0D: Fundamental Elements of Daily Shop Floor Management

Manufacturing System Control

Figure 3.3.1: Manufacturing Practices and System Elements

Process Control

Figure 3.3.2: A View of Shop Floor Management

Manufacturing System Integrity

Standard Work Routines

Deviation Management

Figure 3.3.3: Deviation Management Methodology

Structured Problem Solving

Action Items

Figure 3.3.4: Example of Action Item Format

Decision Making

Poka Yoke

Jidoka

Figure 3.3.5: Jidoka Process Flow

Change Management

Production Change Points

Bottleneck Management

Additional Manufacturing System Controls

Figure 3.3.6: Manufacturing System Control Methods

Key Points

3.4 Manpower

Overview

Figure 3.4.0 Engaging with People

People Availability

People Flexibility

Workload Balancing

Manufacturing Gages and Tools

Employee Motivation

Training & Experience

Workplace Design & Ergonomic

Working Conditions (environment)

Autonomous Maintenance

Labor Efficiency

Employee Safety

Side Bar: Covid-19 in the Workplace

Key Points

3.5 Materials

Overview

Materials Requirements Planning (MRP)

Material Deployment and Replenishment

Milk Run

Water Spider

Material Handling and Storage

Traceability

Inventory Management

Figure 3.5.1: Categories of Manufacturing Materials

Health and safety

Side Bar: Material Kitting

Key Points

3.6 Manufacturing Equipment, Fixtures & Tooling

Overview

Equipment Optimization (Effectiveness, Reliability and Durability)

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

Efficiency Losses (Big Six Losses)

Figure 3.6.1: OEE Losses and Examples

OEE Calculation

OEE Improvement Cycle with PDCA

Equipment Improvement Metrics - MTTR / MTBF

Figure 3.6.2: Visual of Time to Repair and Time Between Failure

Spare Parts Management

Side Bar: Tips for Reducing Equipment Downtime - Good Operating Disciplines

Equipment Reliability

Equipment Calibration

Measurement Systems Analysis

Figure 3.6.3: Measurement System Analysis Overview

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Autonomous Maintenance

Systemic Maintenance

Training & Qualification

Asset Management

Equipment Durability

Key Points

3.7 Methods

Overview

PDCA

5S Method

Deviation Management

Side Bar: Investigating Abnormalities

Change Management

Structured Problem Solving

Figure 3.7.1: Problem Solving Methods

Just-in-Time Inventory

Policy Deployment

Figure 3.7.2: Policy Deployment

Side Bar: Organizational Policy

Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED)

Figure 3.7.3: Changeover Time Reduction Process

Agile Manufacturing

Side Bar: Negative Side to Company growth

Summary

Key Points

3.8 Environment

Overview

Building layout/design

Ergonomics

Safety

Figure 3.8.1: Safe Workplace

Lighting

Temperature

Ventilation

Air Quality

Air Current

Noise

Humidity

Facility Space

Case Study: The Value of Space

Vibration

Key Points

Part 4 - Shop Floor Improvement

Overview

4.1 Product & Process Development

Overview

Design for Manufacturing

Figure 4.1.1: Design for Manufacturing Overview

Design for Six Sigma

Figure 4.1.2.: DFSS Methodology (DICOV)

Design & Process FMEA

Figure 4.1.3.: Failure Modes & Effects Analysis

Key Points

4.2 Productivity Improvement

Overview

Figure 4.2.0: Process Maturity

Incremental Improvement

Sustainable Improvement

Side Bar - Leveraging Organizational Knowledge

Improvement Methods

Quality Circles

Figure 4.2.1 - Seven Basic Quality Tools

Employee Idea Management

Set-up and Changeover (SMED)

Six Sigma DMAIC

Figure 4.2.2: Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology

Kata / PDCA Project

Figure 4.2.3 The Five Toyota Kata Questions and Four Reflections

Value Analysis

Figure 4.2.4. Value Analysis Process

Kaizen Events

Figure 4.2.5: Kaizen Event Process

Jishuken (Self-study) Workshops

Side Bar: Jishuken Workshops

Improvement Tools & Techniques

Go, See, Observe, Understand and Confirm

Side Bar: Tip for Effective Observation

Workplace Design

Process Mapping

Six Thinking Hats

Workload Balancing

Figure 4.2.6: Workload Balancing - Before and After

Production Leveling

Figure 4.2.7: Production Leveling.

Yamazumi Charts

Figure 4.2.8: Yamazumi chart

Buffer Management

Best Practice Sharing

Lessons Learned

Key Points

References

4.3 Agile Methods

Agile Overview

Application of Agile Practices

Predictive, Iterative and Incremental Life Cycles

Figure 4.3.1: Predictive Life Cycle

Figure 4.3.2: Iterative Life Cycle

Daily Stand-up meetings

Retrospectives

Co-location

Side Bar: Agility Response

Case Study: Manufacturing Agility

Key Points

4.4 Shop Floor Optimization

Overview

Figure 4.4.0: Optimize

Knowledgeable and Skilled People

Cooperation and Collaboration

Available and Reliable Equipment

Materials Management

Practices and Procedures

Operator Movement Optimization

Material Flow Optimization

Environmental Optimization

Optimization Methods, Tools and Techniques

Process Characterization

Design of Experiments

Response Surface Analysis

Process Flow Optimization Methods

Value Stream Mapping / Design

Figure 4.4.1 Value Stream Improvement

Side Bar: Optimization Beyond the Shop Floor

Constraint Management

Spaghetti Diagram

Figure 4.4.2 – Spaghetti Diagram Example

Lessons Learned

Case Study: A Pitch for Lessons Learned

Key Points

4.5 Manufacturing Excellence

Overview

Enterprise Alignment

Organizational Structure

Operational Discipline

Employee Accountability

Side Bar: Organize and Prioritize

Agility Mindset

Employee Development

Process Control

Continuous Improvement

Side Bar: Welcome Visitors

Technical Advancement

Supplier Partnerships

Lessons Learned

Shop Floor Practices

Summary

Case Study: Rules of Engagement

Key Points

Part 5 - Next Generation Shop Floor

Overview

Industry 4.0 Expectations

Digital Transformation

Productivity Improvements that make a Difference

Part 1 - Technical Innovations

Collaborative Robots (Cobots)

Figure 5.1: Cobot

Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs)

Micro AGVs

Smart Glasses

Centralized (Automated) Inspection (AOI)

Case Study: Visual Inspection with Artificial Intelligence

Fixed Production Cell

Autonomous (digital) Workforce

Part 2 - Thinking Differently

Big Data

Side Bar: Improvement Projects Using AI

Equipment Robustness (Reliability & Durability)

Predictive Equipment Maintenance

Figure 5.2: Evolution of Predictive Maintenance

Spare Parts Management

3D Printing of Spare Parts

Suitcase Tester

Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)

Figure 5.3: Vendor Managed Inventory

Machine Learning

Modular Product Architecture

Mobile Devices

Gamification

Environmental Sustainability

Key Points

Appendices

Appendix 1 - Daily Shop Floor Management Checklist

Appendix 2 - Manufacturing Operations Manual

Appendix 3 - Standard Work Routines

Appendix 4 - Tips for Shop Floor Monitoring

Appendix 5 - SMED Workshop

Appendix 6- Jishuken Workshop Outline

Appendix 7 -Acronyms & Terms

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Author(s)

Biography

Philip Gisi, PMP, SSMBB, has over 30 years of experience in the automotive, commercial and aerospace industries. His areas of expertise include new product development, process technology, quality management, automotive electronics, and manufacturing. He has worked internationally in multi-cultural environments and is currently involved in manufacturing operations as a manufacturing operations manager at Vitesco Technologies. Phil has a Master of Science in Engineering, a Master’s Certificate in Project Management, Lean Management Certification from the University of Michigan, Project Management Professional certification and a Six Sigma Master Black Belt (SSMBB). Phil is the author of the book “Sustaining a Culture of Process Control and Continuous Improvement: The Roadmap for Efficiency and Operational Excellence” and continues to share his experiences in Project Management, Lean Concepts, and Six Sigma Process Improvement as a DePaul University instructor for over 20 years.