4th Edition

Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition

By Stanley E. Manahan Copyright 2013
    614 Pages 382 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry: Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition covers university-level environmental chemistry, with toxicological chemistry integrated throughout the book. This new edition of a bestseller provides an updated text with an increased emphasis on sustainability and green chemistry. It is organized based on the five spheres of Earth’s environment: (1) the hydrosphere (water), (2) the atmosphere (air), (3) the geosphere (solid Earth), (4) the biosphere (life), and (5) the anthrosphere (the part of the environment made and used by humans).

    The first chapter defines environmental chemistry and each of the five environmental spheres. The second chapter presents the basics of toxicological chemistry and its relationship to environmental chemistry. Subsequent chapters are grouped by sphere, beginning with the hydrosphere and its environmental chemistry, water pollution, sustainability, and water as nature’s most renewable resource. Chapters then describe the atmosphere, its structure and importance for protecting life on Earth, air pollutants, and the sustainability of atmospheric quality. The author explains the nature of the geosphere and discusses soil for growing food as well as geosphere sustainability. He also describes the biosphere and its sustainability.

    The final sphere described is the anthrosphere. The text explains human influence on the environment, including climate, pollution in and by the anthrosphere, and means of sustaining this sphere. It also discusses renewable, nonpolluting energy and introduces workplace monitoring. For readers needing additional basic chemistry background, the book includes two chapters on general chemistry and organic chemistry. This updated edition includes three new chapters, new examples and figures, and many new homework problems.

    Environmental Chemistry and the Five Spheres of the Environment
    What Is Environmental Chemistry?
    Environmental Relationships in Environmental Chemistry
    Environmental Spheres and Biogeochemical Cycles
    Earth’s Natural Capital
    Environmental Chemistry and Green Chemistry
    As We Enter into the Anthropocene
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Fundamentals of Biochemistry and Toxicological Chemistry
    Life Chemical Processes
    Biochemistry and the Cell
    Lipids: Fats, Oils, and Hormones
    Nucleic Acids
    Biochemical Processes in Metabolism
    Toxic Substances, Toxicology, and Toxicological Chemistry
    Toxicological Chemistry
    Kinetic Phase of Xenobiotic Metabolism
    Dynamic Phase of Toxicant Action
    Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis
    Developmental Effects and Teratogenesis
    Toxic Effects on the Immune System
    Damage to the Endocrine System
    Health Hazards of Toxic Substances
    Structure–Activity Relationships in Toxicological Chemistry
    Toxicological Chemistry and Ecotoxicology
    Toxic Agents That May Be Used in Terrorist Attacks
    Questions and Problems
    Supplementary References

    Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Hydrosphere
    H2O: Simple Formula, Remarkable Molecule
    Occurrence of Water
    Water Supply and Availability
    Life and Its Influence on Environmental Chemistry in the Hydrosphere
    Environmental Chemistry of the Hydrosphere
    Acid-Base Phenomena in the Hydrosphere
    Solubility and Phase Interactions
    Metal Ions in Water
    Complexation and Speciation of Metals
    Toxicological Chemistry in the Hydrosphere
    Chemical Interactions with Organisms in the Hydrosphere
    Biodegradation in the Hydrosphere
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Pollution of the Hydrosphere
    Nature and Types of Water Pollutants
    Elemental Pollutants
    Heavy Metals
    Organically Bound Metals
    Inorganic Species as Water Pollutants
    Algal Nutrients and Eutrophication
    Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity
    Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants
    Organic Pollutants
    Pesticides in Water
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    Emerging Water Pollutants, Pharmaceuticals, and Household Wastes
    Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment
    Toxicological Chemistry and Water Pollution
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Sustaining the Hydrosphere
    More Important than Oil
    Greening of Water: Purification before and after Use
    Municipal Water Treatment
    Treatment of Water for Industrial Use
    Wastewater Treatment
    Removal of Solids
    Removal of Calcium and Other Metals
    Removal of Dissolved Organics
    Removal of Dissolved Inorganics
    Membrane Processes and Reverse Osmosis for Water Purification
    Water Disinfection
    Restoration of Wastewater Quality
    Natural Water Purification Processes
    Sludges and Residues from Water Treatment
    Water, the Greenest Substance on Earth: Reuse and Recycling
    Water Conservation
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Atmosphere
    Atmosphere: Air to Breathe and Much More
    Regions of the Atmosphere
    Atmospheric Composition
    Natural Capital of the Atmosphere
    Energy and Mass Transfer in the Atmosphere
    Meteorology, Weather, and Climate
    Atmospheric Inversions and Atmospheric Chemical Phenomena
    Climate, Microclimate, and Microatmosphere
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Photochemical Reactions
    Atmospheric Oxygen
    Atmospheric Nitrogen
    Atmospheric Water
    Atmospheric Particles
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Pollution of the Atmosphere
    Pollution of the Atmosphere and Air Quality
    Pollutant Particles in the Atmosphere
    Inorganic Gas Pollutants
    Nitrogen Oxide Air Pollutants
    Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollution
    Acid–Base Reactions in the Atmosphere and Acid Rain
    Organic Air Pollutants
    Photochemical Smog
    Chlorofluorocarbons and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
    Indoor Air Pollution and the Microatmosphere
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Sustaining the Atmosphere: Blue Skies for a Green Earth
    Preserving the Atmosphere
    Greatest Threat: Global Climate Warming
    Dealing with Global Climate Change
    Control of Particle Emissions
    Control of Carbon Monoxide Emissions
    Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions
    Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions
    Control of Hydrocarbon Emissions and Photochemical Smog
    Biological Control of Air Pollution
    Controlling Acid Rain
    Limiting Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Geosphere
    Chemical Composition of the Geosphere and Geochemistry
    Geosphere as a Source of Natural Capital
    Environmental Hazards of the Geosphere
    Water in and on the Geosphere
    Anthrospheric Influences on the Geosphere
    Geosphere as a Waste Repository
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Soil: A Critical Part of the Geosphere
    Have You Thanked a Clod Today?
    Plant Nutrients and Fertilizers in Soil
    Soil and Plants Related to Wastes and Pollutants
    Soil Loss: Desertification and Deforestation
    Toxicological and Public Health Aspects of Soil
    Toxicological Considerations in Livestock Production
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Sustaining the Geosphere
    Managing the Geosphere for Sustainability
    Sustaining the Geosphere in the Face of Natural Hazards
    Sustainable Development on the Geosphere’s Surface
    Digging in the Dirt
    Extraction of Materials from Earth
    Sustainable Utilization of Geospheric Mineral Resources
    Toxicological Implications of Mineral Mining and Processing
    Sustaining the Geosphere to Manage Water
    Waste Disposal and the Geosphere
    Derelict Lands and Brownfields
    Sustaining Soil
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Biosphere
    Life and the Biosphere
    Organisms and Sustainable Science and Technology
    Life Systems
    Metabolism and Control in Organisms
    Reproduction and Inherited Traits
    Stability and Equilibrium of the Biosphere
    DNA and the Human Genome
    Biological Interaction with Environmental Chemicals
    Effects of the Anthrosphere on the Biosphere
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Sustaining the Biosphere and Its Natural Capital
    Keeping Life Alive
    Natural Capital of the Biosphere
    Genetic Engineering
    Role of Human Activities in Preserving and Enhancing the Biosphere
    Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Atmosphere
    Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Hydrosphere
    Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Geosphere
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Anthrosphere
    Industrial Ecology and Industrial Ecosystems
    Metabolic Processes in Industrial Ecosystems
    Life Cycles in Industrial Ecosystems
    Kinds of Products
    Environmental Impacts of the Anthrosphere
    Green Chemistry and the Anthrosphere
    Predicting and Reducing Hazards with Green Chemistry
    Atom Economy and the E Factor in Green Chemistry
    Catalysts and Catalysis in Green Chemistry
    Biocatalysis with Enzymes
    Energizing Chemical Reactions and Process Intensification
    Solvents and Alternate Reaction Media
    Feedstocks and Reagents
    Anthrosphere and Occupational Health
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Anthrosphere, Pollution, and Wastes
    Wastes from the Anthrosphere
    Classification of Hazardous Substances and Wastes
    Sources of Wastes
    Flammable and Combustible Substances
    Reactive Substances
    Corrosive Substances
    Toxic Substances
    Physical Forms and Segregation of Wastes
    Environmental Chemistry of Hazardous Wastes
    Transport, Effects, and Fates of Hazardous Wastes
    Hazardous Wastes and the Anthrosphere
    Hazardous Wastes in the Geosphere
    Hazardous Wastes in the Hydrosphere
    Hazardous Wastes in the Atmosphere
    Hazardous Wastes in the Biosphere
    Hazardous Substances and Environmental Health and Safety
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Industrial Ecology and Green Chemistry for Sustainable Management of the Anthrosphere
    Managing the Anthrosphere for Sustainability
    Feeding the Anthrosphere
    Key Feedstock: Abundant Elemental Hydrogen from Sustainable Sources
    Feedstocks from the Geosphere
    Biological Feedstocks
    Monosaccharide Feedstocks: Glucose and Fructose
    Hydrocarbons and Similar Materials from Sugars
    Biosynthesis of Chemicals
    Direct Biosynthesis of Polymers
    Biorefineries and Biomass Utilization
    Green Chemistry and Industrial Ecology in Waste Management
    Hazardous Waste Treatment Processes
    Methods of Physical Treatment
    Chemical Treatment
    Photolytic Reactions
    Thermal Treatment Methods
    Biodegradation of Hazardous Wastes
    Preparation of Wastes for Disposal
    Ultimate Disposal of Wastes
    Leachate and Gas Emissions
    In Situ Treatment of Disposed Hazardous Wastes
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Sustainable Energy: The Key to Everything
    Energy Problem
    Nature of Energy
    Sustainable Energy: Away from the Sun and Back Again
    Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere: Present and Future
    Energy Devices and Conversions
    Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency
    Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources
    Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Natural Gas Liquids
    Natural Gas
    Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization
    Great Plains Synfuels Plant: Industrial Ecology in Practice to Produce Energy and Chemicals
    Nuclear Energy
    Geothermal Energy
    Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source
    Energy From Earth’s Two Great Fluids in Motion
    Biomass Energy: An Overview of Biofuels and Their Resources
    Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy
    Combined Power Cycles
    Environmental Health Aspects of Energy Production and Utilization
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Analytical Chemistry and Industrial Hygiene
    Analytical Chemistry
    Industrial Hygiene and Analytical Chemistry
    Categories of Workplace Hazards
    Chemical Hazards
    Workplace Sampling and Personal Monitoring
    Chemical Analysis Process
    Major Categories of Chemical Analysis
    Error and Treatment of Data
    Gravimetric Analysis
    Volumetric Analysis: Titration
    Spectrophotometric Methods of Analysis
    Electrochemical Methods of Analysis
    Mass Spectrometry
    Automated Analyses
    Immunoassay Screening
    Total Organic Carbon in Water
    Measurement of Radioactivity in Water
    Analysis of Wastes and Solids
    Atmospheric Monitoring
    Analysis of Biological Materials and Xenobiotics
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Fundamentals of Chemistry
    Science of Matter
    Chemical Bonding
    Chemical Reactions and Equations
    Questions and Problems
    Literature Cited
    Supplementary References

    Organic Chemistry
    Organic Chemistry
    Using Lines to Show Structural Formulas
    Functional Groups
    Giant Molecules from Small Organic Molecules
    Questions and Problems
    Supplementary References



    Stanley E. Manahan is a professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Missouri-Columbia, where he has been on the faculty since 1965. He earned his AB in chemistry from Emporia State University in Kansas in 1960 and his Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from the University of Kansas in 1965. Since 1968, his primary research and professional activities have been in environmental chemistry, with recent emphasis on hazardous waste treatment. His latest research involves the gasification of wastes and sewage sludge and crop by-product biomass for energy production.

    Dr. Manahan has taught courses on environmental chemistry, hazardous wastes, toxicological chemistry, and analytical chemistry and has lectured on these topics throughout the United States as an American Chemical Society Local Sections tour speaker and in a number of countries, including France, Italy, Austria, Japan, Mexico, and Venezuela. He has written books on environmental chemistry, green chemistry, water chemistry, energy, general chemistry, environmental geology, the Anthropocene, climate change, environmental science, hazardous wastes and industrial ecology, toxicological chemistry, applied chemistry, and quantitative chemical analysis. Dr. Manahan is the author or coauthor of approximately 90 research articles.