Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry : Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition book cover
4th Edition

Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry
Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition

ISBN 9781466553163
Published February 25, 2013 by CRC Press
614 Pages 382 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry: Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition covers university-level environmental chemistry, with toxicological chemistry integrated throughout the book. This new edition of a bestseller provides an updated text with an increased emphasis on sustainability and green chemistry. It is organized based on the five spheres of Earth’s environment: (1) the hydrosphere (water), (2) the atmosphere (air), (3) the geosphere (solid Earth), (4) the biosphere (life), and (5) the anthrosphere (the part of the environment made and used by humans).

The first chapter defines environmental chemistry and each of the five environmental spheres. The second chapter presents the basics of toxicological chemistry and its relationship to environmental chemistry. Subsequent chapters are grouped by sphere, beginning with the hydrosphere and its environmental chemistry, water pollution, sustainability, and water as nature’s most renewable resource. Chapters then describe the atmosphere, its structure and importance for protecting life on Earth, air pollutants, and the sustainability of atmospheric quality. The author explains the nature of the geosphere and discusses soil for growing food as well as geosphere sustainability. He also describes the biosphere and its sustainability.

The final sphere described is the anthrosphere. The text explains human influence on the environment, including climate, pollution in and by the anthrosphere, and means of sustaining this sphere. It also discusses renewable, nonpolluting energy and introduces workplace monitoring. For readers needing additional basic chemistry background, the book includes two chapters on general chemistry and organic chemistry. This updated edition includes three new chapters, new examples and figures, and many new homework problems.

Table of Contents

Environmental Chemistry and the Five Spheres of the Environment
What Is Environmental Chemistry?
Environmental Relationships in Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Spheres and Biogeochemical Cycles
Earth’s Natural Capital
Environmental Chemistry and Green Chemistry
As We Enter into the Anthropocene
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Fundamentals of Biochemistry and Toxicological Chemistry
Life Chemical Processes
Biochemistry and the Cell
Lipids: Fats, Oils, and Hormones
Nucleic Acids
Biochemical Processes in Metabolism
Toxic Substances, Toxicology, and Toxicological Chemistry
Toxicological Chemistry
Kinetic Phase of Xenobiotic Metabolism
Dynamic Phase of Toxicant Action
Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis
Developmental Effects and Teratogenesis
Toxic Effects on the Immune System
Damage to the Endocrine System
Health Hazards of Toxic Substances
Structure–Activity Relationships in Toxicological Chemistry
Toxicological Chemistry and Ecotoxicology
Toxic Agents That May Be Used in Terrorist Attacks
Questions and Problems
Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Hydrosphere
H2O: Simple Formula, Remarkable Molecule
Occurrence of Water
Water Supply and Availability
Life and Its Influence on Environmental Chemistry in the Hydrosphere
Environmental Chemistry of the Hydrosphere
Acid-Base Phenomena in the Hydrosphere
Solubility and Phase Interactions
Metal Ions in Water
Complexation and Speciation of Metals
Toxicological Chemistry in the Hydrosphere
Chemical Interactions with Organisms in the Hydrosphere
Biodegradation in the Hydrosphere
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Pollution of the Hydrosphere
Nature and Types of Water Pollutants
Elemental Pollutants
Heavy Metals
Organically Bound Metals
Inorganic Species as Water Pollutants
Algal Nutrients and Eutrophication
Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity
Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants
Organic Pollutants
Pesticides in Water
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Emerging Water Pollutants, Pharmaceuticals, and Household Wastes
Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment
Toxicological Chemistry and Water Pollution
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Sustaining the Hydrosphere
More Important than Oil
Greening of Water: Purification before and after Use
Municipal Water Treatment
Treatment of Water for Industrial Use
Wastewater Treatment
Removal of Solids
Removal of Calcium and Other Metals
Removal of Dissolved Organics
Removal of Dissolved Inorganics
Membrane Processes and Reverse Osmosis for Water Purification
Water Disinfection
Restoration of Wastewater Quality
Natural Water Purification Processes
Sludges and Residues from Water Treatment
Water, the Greenest Substance on Earth: Reuse and Recycling
Water Conservation
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Atmosphere: Air to Breathe and Much More
Regions of the Atmosphere
Atmospheric Composition
Natural Capital of the Atmosphere
Energy and Mass Transfer in the Atmosphere
Meteorology, Weather, and Climate
Atmospheric Inversions and Atmospheric Chemical Phenomena
Climate, Microclimate, and Microatmosphere
Atmospheric Chemistry and Photochemical Reactions
Atmospheric Oxygen
Atmospheric Nitrogen
Atmospheric Water
Atmospheric Particles
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Pollution of the Atmosphere
Pollution of the Atmosphere and Air Quality
Pollutant Particles in the Atmosphere
Inorganic Gas Pollutants
Nitrogen Oxide Air Pollutants
Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollution
Acid–Base Reactions in the Atmosphere and Acid Rain
Organic Air Pollutants
Photochemical Smog
Chlorofluorocarbons and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Indoor Air Pollution and the Microatmosphere
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Sustaining the Atmosphere: Blue Skies for a Green Earth
Preserving the Atmosphere
Greatest Threat: Global Climate Warming
Dealing with Global Climate Change
Control of Particle Emissions
Control of Carbon Monoxide Emissions
Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions
Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions
Control of Hydrocarbon Emissions and Photochemical Smog
Biological Control of Air Pollution
Controlling Acid Rain
Limiting Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Geosphere
Chemical Composition of the Geosphere and Geochemistry
Geosphere as a Source of Natural Capital
Environmental Hazards of the Geosphere
Water in and on the Geosphere
Anthrospheric Influences on the Geosphere
Geosphere as a Waste Repository
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Soil: A Critical Part of the Geosphere
Have You Thanked a Clod Today?
Plant Nutrients and Fertilizers in Soil
Soil and Plants Related to Wastes and Pollutants
Soil Loss: Desertification and Deforestation
Toxicological and Public Health Aspects of Soil
Toxicological Considerations in Livestock Production
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Sustaining the Geosphere
Managing the Geosphere for Sustainability
Sustaining the Geosphere in the Face of Natural Hazards
Sustainable Development on the Geosphere’s Surface
Digging in the Dirt
Extraction of Materials from Earth
Sustainable Utilization of Geospheric Mineral Resources
Toxicological Implications of Mineral Mining and Processing
Sustaining the Geosphere to Manage Water
Waste Disposal and the Geosphere
Derelict Lands and Brownfields
Sustaining Soil
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Biosphere
Life and the Biosphere
Organisms and Sustainable Science and Technology
Life Systems
Metabolism and Control in Organisms
Reproduction and Inherited Traits
Stability and Equilibrium of the Biosphere
DNA and the Human Genome
Biological Interaction with Environmental Chemicals
Effects of the Anthrosphere on the Biosphere
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Sustaining the Biosphere and Its Natural Capital
Keeping Life Alive
Natural Capital of the Biosphere
Genetic Engineering
Role of Human Activities in Preserving and Enhancing the Biosphere
Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Atmosphere
Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Hydrosphere
Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Geosphere
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Anthrosphere
Industrial Ecology and Industrial Ecosystems
Metabolic Processes in Industrial Ecosystems
Life Cycles in Industrial Ecosystems
Kinds of Products
Environmental Impacts of the Anthrosphere
Green Chemistry and the Anthrosphere
Predicting and Reducing Hazards with Green Chemistry
Atom Economy and the E Factor in Green Chemistry
Catalysts and Catalysis in Green Chemistry
Biocatalysis with Enzymes
Energizing Chemical Reactions and Process Intensification
Solvents and Alternate Reaction Media
Feedstocks and Reagents
Anthrosphere and Occupational Health
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Anthrosphere, Pollution, and Wastes
Wastes from the Anthrosphere
Classification of Hazardous Substances and Wastes
Sources of Wastes
Flammable and Combustible Substances
Reactive Substances
Corrosive Substances
Toxic Substances
Physical Forms and Segregation of Wastes
Environmental Chemistry of Hazardous Wastes
Transport, Effects, and Fates of Hazardous Wastes
Hazardous Wastes and the Anthrosphere
Hazardous Wastes in the Geosphere
Hazardous Wastes in the Hydrosphere
Hazardous Wastes in the Atmosphere
Hazardous Wastes in the Biosphere
Hazardous Substances and Environmental Health and Safety
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Industrial Ecology and Green Chemistry for Sustainable Management of the Anthrosphere
Managing the Anthrosphere for Sustainability
Feeding the Anthrosphere
Key Feedstock: Abundant Elemental Hydrogen from Sustainable Sources
Feedstocks from the Geosphere
Biological Feedstocks
Monosaccharide Feedstocks: Glucose and Fructose
Hydrocarbons and Similar Materials from Sugars
Biosynthesis of Chemicals
Direct Biosynthesis of Polymers
Biorefineries and Biomass Utilization
Green Chemistry and Industrial Ecology in Waste Management
Hazardous Waste Treatment Processes
Methods of Physical Treatment
Chemical Treatment
Photolytic Reactions
Thermal Treatment Methods
Biodegradation of Hazardous Wastes
Preparation of Wastes for Disposal
Ultimate Disposal of Wastes
Leachate and Gas Emissions
In Situ Treatment of Disposed Hazardous Wastes
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Sustainable Energy: The Key to Everything
Energy Problem
Nature of Energy
Sustainable Energy: Away from the Sun and Back Again
Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere: Present and Future
Energy Devices and Conversions
Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency
Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources
Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Natural Gas Liquids
Natural Gas
Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization
Great Plains Synfuels Plant: Industrial Ecology in Practice to Produce Energy and Chemicals
Nuclear Energy
Geothermal Energy
Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source
Energy From Earth’s Two Great Fluids in Motion
Biomass Energy: An Overview of Biofuels and Their Resources
Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy
Combined Power Cycles
Environmental Health Aspects of Energy Production and Utilization
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Analytical Chemistry and Industrial Hygiene
Analytical Chemistry
Industrial Hygiene and Analytical Chemistry
Categories of Workplace Hazards
Chemical Hazards
Workplace Sampling and Personal Monitoring
Chemical Analysis Process
Major Categories of Chemical Analysis
Error and Treatment of Data
Gravimetric Analysis
Volumetric Analysis: Titration
Spectrophotometric Methods of Analysis
Electrochemical Methods of Analysis
Mass Spectrometry
Automated Analyses
Immunoassay Screening
Total Organic Carbon in Water
Measurement of Radioactivity in Water
Analysis of Wastes and Solids
Atmospheric Monitoring
Analysis of Biological Materials and Xenobiotics
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Fundamentals of Chemistry
Science of Matter
Chemical Bonding
Chemical Reactions and Equations
Questions and Problems
Literature Cited
Supplementary References

Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Using Lines to Show Structural Formulas
Functional Groups
Giant Molecules from Small Organic Molecules
Questions and Problems
Supplementary References


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Stanley E. Manahan is a professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Missouri-Columbia, where he has been on the faculty since 1965. He earned his AB in chemistry from Emporia State University in Kansas in 1960 and his Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from the University of Kansas in 1965. Since 1968, his primary research and professional activities have been in environmental chemistry, with recent emphasis on hazardous waste treatment. His latest research involves the gasification of wastes and sewage sludge and crop by-product biomass for energy production.

Dr. Manahan has taught courses on environmental chemistry, hazardous wastes, toxicological chemistry, and analytical chemistry and has lectured on these topics throughout the United States as an American Chemical Society Local Sections tour speaker and in a number of countries, including France, Italy, Austria, Japan, Mexico, and Venezuela. He has written books on environmental chemistry, green chemistry, water chemistry, energy, general chemistry, environmental geology, the Anthropocene, climate change, environmental science, hazardous wastes and industrial ecology, toxicological chemistry, applied chemistry, and quantitative chemical analysis. Dr. Manahan is the author or coauthor of approximately 90 research articles.