1st Edition

Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

By Michiel Postema Copyright 2011
    248 Pages
    by CRC Press

    248 Pages
    by CRC Press

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    Ultrasonic imaging is an economic, reliable diagnostic technique. Owing to recent therapeutic applications, understanding the physical principles of medical ultrasonics is becoming increasingly important. 

    Covering the basics of elasticity, linear acoustics, wave propagation, nonlinear acoustics, transducer components, ultrasonic imaging modes, basics on cavitation and bubble physics, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications, Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics explores the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications.  

    It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

    Definition of Sound
    A Brief History of Cavitation and Ultrasound
    Outline and Acknowledgements

    Stress, Strain and Elasticity
    The Uniform State of Stress
    Stress on an Inclined Plane
    Transformation of Stress for Rotation of Axes
    Principle Stress
    Stationary Values of Sheet Stress
    Octahedral Stresses
    Hydrostatic (Dilational) and Deviatoric Stress Tensors
    Strains and Displacements
    General Hooke’s Law
    Equilibrium Equations for Three Dimensions
    Strain Compatibility Equations
    Plane Strain
    Plane Stress
    Polar Coordinates
    Stress Functions
    Stress Functions in Polar Coordinates

    Mass on a Spring
    Free Vibrations
    Damped Free Vibrations
    Forced Vibrations
    Undamped Forced Vibrations
    Damped Forced Vibrations
    Nonlinear Springs

    Waves and Sound
    Wave Equation
    Speed of Sound in Air
    Solutions of the 1-Dimensional Wave Equation
    Sound Energy
    Point and Line Sources
    Doppler Effect
    Root-Mean-Square Pressure
    Superposition of Waves
    Complex Representation of a Plane, Harmonic Wave
    Standing Wave
    Fourier Transform
    Decibel Scale
    Vectorial Notation for the Wave Equation
    Plane Waves in Isotropic Media
    Waves in Fluids
    Mechanisms of Attenuation
    Reflection and Transmission
    Nonlinear Propagation

    The Piezo-Effect
    Piezo Electric Materials
    Transducer Bandwidth
    Transducer Construction

    Radiated Fields
    Continuous Wave Excitation
    Transient Excitation
    Transducer Arrays

    Medical Imaging
    Standard Ultrasonic Imaging Modes
    Doppler Methods
    Special Techniques
    Biological Effects of Ultrasound and Safety Regulations

    Bubble Physics
    Hollow Sphere
    Cavitation Threshold
    Fundamental Equation of Bubble Dynamics
    Pressure Radiated by a Bubble
    Viscous Fluids
    Radiation Forces

    CEUS and Sonoporation
    Commercial Ultrasound Contrast Agents
    Some Non-Cardiac Imaging Applications
    Molecular Imaging
    Increased Drug Uptake
    Causes of Sonoporation
    Drug Carriers
    Gene Delivery
    Therapeutic News
    Cell Death
    High-Intensity Focussed Ultrasound
    Concluding Remarks


    Michiel Postema is Professor of Experimental Acoustics at the University of Bergen, Norway.