1st Edition

Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

ISBN 9781138077232
Published March 31, 2017 by CRC Press
248 Pages

USD $86.95

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Book Description

Ultrasonic imaging is an economic, reliable diagnostic technique. Owing to recent therapeutic applications, understanding the physical principles of medical ultrasonics is becoming increasingly important. 

Covering the basics of elasticity, linear acoustics, wave propagation, nonlinear acoustics, transducer components, ultrasonic imaging modes, basics on cavitation and bubble physics, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications, Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics explores the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications.  

It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

Table of Contents

Definition of Sound
A Brief History of Cavitation and Ultrasound
Outline and Acknowledgements

Stress, Strain and Elasticity
The Uniform State of Stress
Stress on an Inclined Plane
Transformation of Stress for Rotation of Axes
Principle Stress
Stationary Values of Sheet Stress
Octahedral Stresses
Hydrostatic (Dilational) and Deviatoric Stress Tensors
Strains and Displacements
General Hooke’s Law
Equilibrium Equations for Three Dimensions
Strain Compatibility Equations
Plane Strain
Plane Stress
Polar Coordinates
Stress Functions
Stress Functions in Polar Coordinates

Mass on a Spring
Free Vibrations
Damped Free Vibrations
Forced Vibrations
Undamped Forced Vibrations
Damped Forced Vibrations
Nonlinear Springs

Waves and Sound
Wave Equation
Speed of Sound in Air
Solutions of the 1-Dimensional Wave Equation
Sound Energy
Point and Line Sources
Doppler Effect
Root-Mean-Square Pressure
Superposition of Waves
Complex Representation of a Plane, Harmonic Wave
Standing Wave
Fourier Transform
Decibel Scale
Vectorial Notation for the Wave Equation
Plane Waves in Isotropic Media
Waves in Fluids
Mechanisms of Attenuation
Reflection and Transmission
Nonlinear Propagation

The Piezo-Effect
Piezo Electric Materials
Transducer Bandwidth
Transducer Construction

Radiated Fields
Continuous Wave Excitation
Transient Excitation
Transducer Arrays

Medical Imaging
Standard Ultrasonic Imaging Modes
Doppler Methods
Special Techniques
Biological Effects of Ultrasound and Safety Regulations

Bubble Physics
Hollow Sphere
Cavitation Threshold
Fundamental Equation of Bubble Dynamics
Pressure Radiated by a Bubble
Viscous Fluids
Radiation Forces

CEUS and Sonoporation
Commercial Ultrasound Contrast Agents
Some Non-Cardiac Imaging Applications
Molecular Imaging
Increased Drug Uptake
Causes of Sonoporation
Drug Carriers
Gene Delivery
Therapeutic News
Cell Death
High-Intensity Focussed Ultrasound
Concluding Remarks

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Michiel Postema is Professor of Experimental Acoustics at the University of Bergen, Norway.