1st Edition

Fundamentals of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology Biomonitoring of Bacteria, Protozoa, COVID-19, and Other Viruses

By Frank R. Spellman Copyright 2021
    338 Pages 34 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    It is common practice to evaluate wastewater to understand drug consumption, from antibiotics to illegal narcotics, and even to analyze dietary habits and trends. Evaluating contaminants in wastewater enables researchers, environmental scientists, and water quality experts to gain valuable information and data. Wastewater-based epidemiology is an emerging science that has proven to be a cost- and time-effective biomonitoring tool. This book provides a roadmap for detecting wastewater-borne pathogenic contaminants such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and others. It provides a basic, fundamental discussion of how sampling and monitoring of wastewater using epidemiological concepts and practices can aid in determining the presence of the COVID-19 virus in a community, for example, and may help predict future outbreaks.



    • Offers a unique discussion of the detection of bacteria, fungi, and COVID-19, and other viruses in wastewater

    • Presents the fundamentals of wastewater chemistry and microbiology

    • Explains biomonitoring, sampling, testing, and health surveillance in a practical manner


    Fundamentals of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology: Biomonitoring of Bacteria, Fungi, COVID-19, and Other Viruses is an invaluable resource to a wide array of readers with varying interests and backgrounds in water science and public health.

    PART 1 Setting the Stage

    Chapter 1 And What’s in the Pipes Will Tell

    Chapter 2 Fundamental Epidemiology

    PART 2 Statistical Methods

    Chapter 3 Statistics and Biostatistics Review

    Chapter 4 Basic Concepts

    Chapter 5 Distribution

    Chapter 6 Sampling—Measurement Variables

    Chapter 7 Frequency Measures: Incidence, Prevalence,

    and Mortality Rates

    Chapter 8 Measures of Association and Public Health Impact

    PART 3 Wastewater

    Chapter 9 The Science of Wastewater

    Chapter 10 Wastewater Spawned Infectious Disease

    PART 4 Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

    Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Biomonitoring, Monitoring, Sampling, and


    Chapter 12 Wastewater Bacteria Sampling, Testing, and Analysis

    Chapter 13 Wastewater Protozoa Sampling, Testing, and Analysis

    Chapter 14 Wastewater Virus Sampling, Testing, and Analysis


    Frank R. Spellman is a retired assistant professor of Environmental Health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va. and author of over 60 books. Spellman has been cited in more than 400 publications; serves as a professional expert witness; incident/accident investigator for the U.S. Department of Justice and a private law firm; and consults on Homeland Security vulnerability assessments (VAs) for critical infrastructure including water/wastewater facilities nationwide. Dr. Spellman lectures on sewage treatment, water treatment and homeland security and health and safety topics throughout the country and teaches water/wastewater operator short courses at Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA). He holds a BA in public Administration; BS in Business Management; MBA; Master of Science, MS, in Environmental Engineering and PhD Environmental Engineering.