This textbook showcases the rapidly developing field of materials optics. It is aimed at a broad audience as the readers require only university entry level knowledge of physics, chemistry, and optics. It overviews the basics of optical engineering and the typical and widely used applications of materials optics, with the first general chapters corresponding to the standard university courses, targeting bachelor’s and master’s degrees in physics. The next few chapters present the modern developments in materials optics, such as nano-plasmonics, nano-photonics, and optical properties of nano-sized materials, intended for readers familiar with the basic elements of quantum mechanics. Some more specialized chapters address recent developments in fields such as optics of solid surfaces, plasma optics, optics of composites, alloys, and metamaterials; optics of anisotropic materials; optics of organic and biological materials; and relativistic effects in optics. The appendices present a more advanced description of selected topics, with important reference materials, subject index, and extended list of publications, as well as numerous examples and problems to better orient readers interested in gaining further knowledge of the subject.