Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops: Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops

Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By P. Vidhyasekaran

CRC Press

536 pages | 92 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2007-08-09
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Description

Dramatic progress in molecular biology and genetic engineering has recently produced an unparalleled wealth of information on the mechanisms of plant and pathogen interactions at the cellular and molecular levels. Completely revised and expanded, Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops: Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition offers fresh insight into the interplay of signaling systems in plant and pathogen interactions. The book delineates the battle between plant and fungal pathogen and the complex signaling systems involved.

See what's new in the Second Edition:

  • Chapter on the role of disease resistance genes in signal perception and emission

  • Chapter on cell death signaling in disease susceptibility and resistance

  • Revised material on phytoalexins, toxins, and signal perception and transduction in fungal pathogenesis

  • 17 additional families of pathogenesis-related proteins and antifungal proteins

    The book describes the weapons used by fungal pathogens to evade or suppress the host defense mechanisms. It covers each fungal infection process from initial contact and penetration to the subsequent invasion and symptom development. The author explains complex signaling systems in the plant-pathogen interface with flow charts and provides drawings elucidating the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. He includes figures that highlight cutting-edge breakthroughs in molecular science and tables documenting important findings in the field of molecular plant pathology. These features and more make this book not only the most up to date resource in the field, but also the most important.

  • Table of Contents

    PERCEPTION AND TRANSDUCTION OF PLANT SIGNALS IN PATHOGENS

    Introduction

    Signaling and Transduction Systems in ''First Touch'' and Adhesion of Fungal Spores

    Signaling in Fungal Spore Germination

    Signaling in Differentiation of Germ Tubes into Infection Structures

    Signal Transduction in Fungal Pathogenesis

    Genes Involved in Formation of Infection Structures

    Signals in Fungal Infection Process

    Conclusion

    References

    PERCEPTION AND TRANSDUCTION OF PATHOGEN SIGNALS IN PLANTS

    Introduction

    What Are Elicitors?

    Oligosaccharide Elicitors

    Protein Peptide Elicitors

    Glycoprotein Elicitors

    Lipid Elicitors

    Toxins as Elicitor Molecules

    Plant Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes as Elicitors

    Race-Specific and Cultivar-Specific Elicitors

    Specificity of General Elicitors

    Endogenous Oligogalacturonide Elicitors

    Multiple Elicitors May Be Needed to Activate Defense Responses

    Availability of Fungal Elicitors at the Site of Fungal Invasion in Plants

    Receptors for Elicitor Signals in Plant Cell Membrane

    Calcium Ion May Act as Second Messenger

    Phosphorylation of Proteins as a Component in Signal Transduction System

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades in Signal Transduction

    Phospholipid-Signaling System

    Anion Channels in Signal Transduction

    Extracellular Alkalinization and Cytoplasmic Acidification in Signaling System

    Reactive Oxygen Species in Signal Transduction

    Nitric Oxide in Signal Transduction

    Salicylic Acid-Signaling System

    Jasmonate-Signaling Pathway

    Role of Systemin in Signal Transduction System

    Ethylene-Dependent Signaling Pathway

    Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Fatty Acids as Systemic Signal Molecules

    Other Signaling Systems

    Network and Interplay of Signaling Pathways

    Induction of Defense Genes May Require Different Signal Transduction Systems

    Perception and Transduction of Pathogen Signals in Plants Leading to Susceptibility

    Signaling Systems in Susceptible Interactions

    Conclusion

    References

    DISEASE RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES IN SIGNAL PERCEPTION AND EMISSION

    Introduction

    Molecular Structure of Resistance Genes

    Classification of Resistance Genes based on Molecular Structure of R Gene-Encoded Proteins

    Molecular Structure of Recessive Genes

    Perception of Pathogen Signals by Resistance Genes

    Activation of R Protein and Emission of Signals to Other Components in the Cell

    Downstream Components of R Gene Signaling Systems

    Downstream Signaling Events in R Gene-Mediated Resistance

    Susceptibility Genes in Signal Transduction

    Conclusion

    References

    CELL DEATH PROGRAMS DURING FUNGAL PATHOGENESIS

    Introduction

    Cell Death in Resistant Interactions

    Molecular Mechanism of Induction of Hypersensitive Cell Death

    Molecular Mechanism of Induction of Spontaneous Cell Death

    Molecular Mechanism of Induction of Runaway Cell Death

    Role of Cell Death in Induction of Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Susceptibility-Related Cell Death

    Molecular Mechanisms in Induction of Cell Death in Susceptible Interactions

    What Is the Function of Cell Death in Fungal Pathogenesis?

    Conclusion

    References

    CELL WALL DEGRADATION AND FORTIFICATION

    Introduction

    Structure of Cuticle

    Penetration of Epicuticular Waxy Layer by Pathogens

    Production of Cutinases to Breach Cuticle Barrier

    Genes Encoding Cutinases

    Plant Signals Triggering Fungal Cutinases

    Importance of Cutinases in Penetration of Cuticle

    Cutinases as Virulence Pathogenicity Factors

    Melanins in Fungal Penetration of Cuticle Barrier

    Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides

    Pathogens Produce Cellulolytic Enzymes to Breach Cell Wall Barrier

    Fungal Hemicellulases in Plant Cell Wall Degradation

    Degradation of Cell Wall Structural Proteins

    Requirement of Several Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes to Degrade the Complex-Natured Cell Wall

    Production of Suitable Enzymes in Appropriate Sequence by Fungal Pathogens

    Reinforcement of Host Cell Wall during Fungal Invasion

    Papillae Suppress Fungal Penetration

    Callose Deposition in Cell Wall

    How Do Pathogens Overcome the Papillae and Callose Barriers?

    Cell Wall-Bound Phenolics and Lignins

    Suberization during Fungal Pathogenesis

    Deposition of Mineral Elements in Host Cell Wall in Response to Fungal Invasion

    Conclusion

    References

    INDUCTION AND EVASION OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS

    Introduction

    Multiplicity of PR Proteins

    Classification of PR Proteins

    Induction of PR Proteins during Fungal Pathogenesis

    Genes Encoding PR Proteins

    Transcription of PR Genes

    Signals Involved in Transcriptional Induction of PR Genes

    PR Proteins Are Synthesized as Larger Precursors

    Secretion of PR Proteins

    PR Proteins May Be Involved in Inhibition of Pathogen Development

    PR Proteins May Be Involved in Triggering Disease Resistance

    How Do Pathogens Overcome Fungitoxic PR Proteins of the Host?

    Conclusion

    References

    EVASION AND DETOXIFICATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES

    Introduction

    Chemical Structural Classes of Phytoalexins

    Biosynthesis of Isoflavonoid Phytoalexins

    Biosynthesis of Flavanone Phytoalexins

    Biosynthesis of Coumarin Phytoalexins

    Biosynthesis of Stilbene Phytoalexins

    Biosynthesis of Terpenoid Phytoalexins

    Biosynthesis of Indole-Based Sulfur-Containing Phytoalexins

    Biosynthesis of Alkaloid Phytoalexins

    Site of Synthesis of Phytoalexins

    Phytoalexins Are Fungitoxic

    How Do Pathogens Overcome the Antifungal Phytoalexins?

    Chemical Structural Classes of Phytoanticipins

    Phenolics as Phytoanticipins

    Toxicity of Phenolics to Pathogens

    How Does Pathogen Overcome the Antifungal Phenolics?

    Saponins as Phytoanticipins

    Glucosinolates as Phytoanticipins

    Cyanogenic Glucosides

    Dienes

    Conclusion

    References

    TOXINS IN DISEASE SYMPTOM DEVELOPMENT

    Introduction

    Importance of Toxins in Disease Development

    Toxins Suppress Host-Defense Mechanisms

    Toxins Cause Cell Membrane Dysfunction

    How Do Pathogens Induce Membrane Dysfunction only in Susceptible Hosts?

    Conclusion

    References

    Index

    About the Series

    Books in Soils, Plants, and the Environment

    Learn more…

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    SCI011000
    SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
    SCI045000
    SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Microbiology
    SCI086000
    SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General
    TEC003000
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General